Volume 29, Issue 12 (3-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 29(12): 497-509 | Back to browse issues page

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Ghanipour khondabi F, Asadi Davodabadi M, Aliahmadi O, Roshanaei A. A Comparative Study of Women's and Men's Employment Programs in Iran's Development Programs. RJMS 2023; 29 (12) :497-509
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-8074-en.html
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Ashtian Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ashtian, Iran , Assadi2001ir@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (454 Views)
Background & Aims: It was associated with the policy maker's attitude based on the belief of greater participation of women in the social, economic and cultural scenes, therefore, compared to the previous two programs, attention to the situation of women was planned in a clearer way. One of the basic points in the third development plan was to align it with the establishment of an institution as "Women's Participation Affairs Center". In the important parts of the program, such as education and employment policies, no interesting needs are observed between the two sexes. The fourth program is interesting both in terms of the amount of materials of the program that are dedicated to women and also in terms of a different approach regarding the topic of gender. In the fourth development plan, it is emphasized to eliminate violence against women. The most important concern in the fourth development plan is the issue of women's employment and the improvement of the economic status of women in the society, and if we are talking about reforming public attitudes towards women, this reform of attitudes is related to holding economic positions and employment opportunities. In the third program, special educational and cultural-sports needs are emphasized by using Islamic principles and foundations. In the fifth development plan, which is considered to be the most important article of this plan about women and family. In the 6th Development Plan, it is very important to improve the status of women and a suitable position for women and family was considered in this program. Creating suitable job opportunities to attract unemployed graduates, which has increased as a result of the increase in the number of girls entering universities, paying attention to female heads of the household, self-headed and abusive women, reducing divorce, increasing the facilitation of marriage, the possibility of facilitating the entry of women into higher academic degrees such as Ph.D. Specialization and serious attention to improving the quality of women's health is one of the issues that should be given serious attention in the future. As a result, it is in accordance with the theories of gender justice, which is often equated with the concept of gender equality. But in reality, they are two separate concepts. Gender equality refers to equal life opportunities for women and men, which includes the ability to participate in the public sphere. Gender equality focuses on fair participation in education, the labor market, health services and politics. Legal reform is one of the key and important tools in the fight for equality. Gender equality does not necessarily ensure equality of outcomes; because it assumes that when barriers to participation are removed, there will be a level playing field for both sexes, and it does not consider that men and women may have different realities and experiences. Therefore, the concept of gender justice is raised. Gender justice refers to justice in life outcomes for women and men. As a result, it thinks beyond equal opportunities, reminds the need to change attitudes, emphasizes the different interests, preferences and needs of men and women, and emphasizes the need to redistribute power and resources. This paper examines the gender policies governing Iran's employment development programs before and after the revolution. Which is using qualitative content analysis. The purpose of this study shows that there are several elements and propositions of gender discourses in the set of employee development programs of Iran before and after the revolution.
Methods: The above paper is a documentary and library study. The research method used is of the secondary analysis type and is mostly done by using library data and using sites and the general population and housing censuses and registration information. The data used are second-hand data and partly third-hand data. According to the type of data, the study is descriptive and analytical. In this paper, due to the limitation of census information, that part of the gender analysis of employment based on Iran's development programs before and after the revolution and population and housing statistics has been used to some extent from registration data.
Results: The results obtained from the employment status of women show that during different years before the revolution and even after the revolution, the changes in women's employment did not experience a regular upward or downward trend. Comparing the employment of women and men also shows superiority the regularity of men in the labor market during the statistical survey was from (1956-2020). Also, the unstable trend of development in the employment of women and men, especially women, shows that with the smallest changes in economic conditions, a large part of the female labor force has left the market. This issue is not only from an economic point of view but also from a social point of view. It also has adverse consequences for society. The current state of Iran's labor market, including its high unemployment rate, and low participation rate, shows limited employment generation. That the set of policies, laws, and regulations in the field of employment did not have the necessary efficiency. A review of each of the development programs in Iran shows that the issue of "gender justice" has been neglected and has faced shortcomings in its application and implementation. In the development programs before the Islamic revolution, the statesmen's view of development was purely economic. It was believed that the movement towards development begins with the growing trend of the growth of the national gross product. By dividing the population into two semi-urban and rural, the semi-urban brought new values following the increasing contact with the outside world.
Conclusion: In terms of the period, the approval authorities in the fields of employment, diversity, transformation, decline, and rise. In other words, while in the development programs, there have been things such as equal pay, insurance, equal working hours, and expertise for the employment of women and men. In some cases, policymakers have paid attention to things such as wage equality, skill-oriented, empowerment and structural changes in women's employment, and in general, by using the theory of Giddens, Barry, Tocqueville, Bloomberg, it can be seen that there are approaches to create jobs for women and men, change the structure, identified equality, development, dignity, economic power in the documents of Iran's employment development programs. That a diverse set of macroeconomic policies and active and inactive labor market policies have been implemented with the purpose and motivation of creating employment. Which have different and diverse positive and negative, strong and weak consequences and functions. The results of women's employment status show that during different years before the revolution and even after the revolution, the changes in women's employment did not experience a regular upward or downward trend.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychiatric Occupational therapy

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