Volume 29, Issue 10 (12-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(10): 462-471 | Back to browse issues page

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Nasresfahani M, Alimehdi M. Prediction of Death Anxiety Based on Attachment Styles and Feelings of Loneliness with a Mediating Role of Psychological Toughness in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. RJMS 2022; 29 (10) :462-471
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7995-en.html
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran, Iran , alimehdi.mansoor@gmail.com
Abstract:   (112 Views)
Background & Aims: Diabetes in itself has a lot of psychological pressures for people with it because these people have to deal with it for their whole life. The prevalence of diabetes has increased significantly during the last two decades and it is estimated that by 2030, the number of people with diabetes will increase. Increase by more than 438 million people. The present study was conducted to investigate the prediction of death anxiety based on attachment styles and feelings of loneliness with the mediating role of psychological toughness in men with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: The statistical population of the current study included all men with type 1 diabetes who were referred to specialized clinics for the treatment of diabetes in Tehran in 2021. From this population, 206 subjects were selected by the available sampling method, and research questionnaires were distributed among them. The research tools included the Death Anxiety Questionnaire (DAS), the Adult Attachment Styles Questionnaire (AAI), the University of California Loneliness Scale (UCLA), and Ahvaz Psychological Toughness Questionnaire (AHI). The present research is descriptive and of the type of correlation designs. The statistical population of the current study included all men with diabetes who were referred to specialized clinics in Tehran in 2021, 206 subjects were selected from this population by available sampling and the research questionnaires were distributed among them. Entry criteria include having at least a diploma, diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, being between the ages of 45 and 60, and exclusion criteria including non-participation and interest in cooperation, suffering from other types of diabetes, and suffering from other types of chronic diseases except diabetes. And the general medical condition was very poor according to the doctor's opinion. It should be noted that this article has a code of ethics. The death anxiety questionnaire was designed by Templer (1970). This questionnaire is self-administered and consists of 15 correct (1) and incorrect (0) questions. The highest score a person can get in this test is 15 and the lowest score is 0. The Adult Attachment Styles Questionnaire (AAI) was designed by Simpson (1990). This questionnaire contains 13 questions on a five-point Likert scale ranging from completely agree (5) to completely disagree (1), 5 questions to evaluate secure attachment style, 4 questions to evaluate avoidant attachment style, and 4 questions to evaluate anxious attachment style. is allocated To measure loneliness, the loneliness scale designed by Russell (1996) was used, which is the most well-known loneliness scale. This scale has 20 items, 11 items have negative content and 9 items have positive content. The reader must answer each question on a four-point Likert scale ranging from never (1) to often (4). The range of scores on this test is from 20 to 80, and a higher score indicates greater loneliness. This scale has been implemented in four groups of students, nurses, teachers, and elderly people and in different ways such as self-reporting and interview, and its Cronbach's alpha range was obtained from 0.89 to 0.94.
Results: As a result, the experimental data collected by the researcher confirmed the theoretical model developed based on the research literature and shows that the causal model developed to explain death anxiety is based on attachment styles and feelings of loneliness with mediation. Gray's psychological toughness is a desirable model. Considering that the developed conceptual model had a good fit, there is no need to modify the conceptual model. As can be seen in Table 5, the linear combination of attachment styles, loneliness, and psychological toughness explains 38% of the variance of death anxiety. The linear combination of attachment styles and feelings of loneliness explains 33% of the variance of death anxiety. The linear combination of attachment styles and feelings of loneliness explains 25% of the variance of psychological toughness. The linear combination of attachment styles, feelings of loneliness, and psychological toughness explains 38% of the variance of death anxiety. Linear attachment styles and feelings of loneliness explain 25% of the variance of psychological toughness. Anxiety is also associated with diabetes and can have negative effects on disease control. Anxiety can increase the level of stress hormones and lead to increased blood sugar or exacerbation of high blood sugar. In Iran, surveys indicate an increase in the number of patients. According to the estimates of the International Diabetes Federation, Iran will become one of the most prevalent regions in the world in terms of diabetes by 2030.
Conclusion: In this research, the ability to predict death anxiety based on attachment styles and feelings of loneliness with the mediating role of psychological toughness in men with type 1 diabetes was examined. As the findings show, attachment styles have the ability to predict death anxiety due to the mediating role of psychological toughness, and this model is a desirable model. Individuals who score high on attachment anxiety show sensitivity to the slightest signs of illness and strongly emphasize the need for social support, which reduces their ability to show resilience. People with avoidant attachment do not have this ability because of weakness and difficulty in interpersonal communication. For high resilience, people must have high psychological balance and are constantly in turmoil. Sick people may experience symptoms related to avoidant attachment making the person stubborn to face the problem. The results show that the causal model developed to explain death anxiety based on attachment styles and feelings of loneliness with the mediation of psychological toughness is a good model.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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