Volume 29, Issue 11 (1-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 29(11): 470-476 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 01
Ethics code: 01
Clinical trials code: 01

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Nazif M, Morsal B, Fahiminegad A, Jafari A. Measurement of Health and Wellness Indicators in Recreational and Sports Swimming Pools. RJMS 2023; 29 (11) :470-476
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7692-en.html
Department of physical education, Shahrood branch, Isalmic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran. , MORSAL1361@GMAIL.COM
Abstract:   (20 Views)
Background & Purpose: Swimming is one of the most fun sports, however, swimming pools are a good place for disease transmission. The importance of water quality in water environments that are chosen for swimming is mostly related to their microbial and chemical quality. Nowadays, due to the poverty of sports per capita as well as the dispersion of the population in the country, some natural ecosystems of the country are inevitably chosen as a place for sports and recreational activities. This is while in special circumstances there is a possibility that prominent athletes and national champions will also use such environments for the preparation period before professional competitions and start training in them. Like the national team of rowing, rafting, swimming, and multiple competitions. Also, spending free time is another use of this type of natural ecosystem. Lakes, lagoons, rivers, reservoirs, etc. are of interest to users as natural places for recreational and sports activities. The important thing is that such spaces, in addition to not cost much for users, do not include time limits. But on the other hand, atmospheric conditions as well as their physical-chemical and biological parameters can affect the health and performance of athletes and users. 26 cases of disease outbreaks involving 1363 people have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control in the United States since 1988 due to the use of water in recreational and swimming centers. In this research, an attempt is made to investigate the physical, chemical, and biological quality of water in natural swimming pools in the northern provinces of the country (Mazandaran and Gilan), which are known as sports and recreational environments. In principle, the researcher seeks to investigate the measurement of health and wellness indicators in recreational and sports swimming pools.
Methods: TThis study is descriptive-cross-sectional, and in this study, from all existing swimming pools in Sari city (6 swimming pools including one indoor swimming pool for men and women and 5 outdoor swimming pools (once every 10 days during the maximum number of swimmers 14-16) Microbial and chemical sampling was done. The total number of samples collected was 36 samples for microbial tests and 36 samples for chemical tests. In the sampling, first, based on pre-designed questionnaires, the general characteristics of the pool such as pool ownership, sampling date, sampling time, Atmospheric condition, type of pool, type of water purifier, pool area, pool volume, the maximum number of swimmers per day, number of lifeguards, number of showers, number of toilets, number of changing rooms, type of chlorination system, were recorded through interviews with pool operators. Microbial sampling was done using sterilized glasses with a volume of 300 ml and according to the standard method, and after this step, the samples were sent to the laboratory in the vicinity of ice for 2-6 hours. In this study, in addition to determining the general characteristics of the pools through interviews, Chlorine parameters in the case laboratory were measured and recorded in the relevant forms. Water sampling was done once every 10 days during the maximum number of swimmers (14-16). The residual chlorine pH at the sampling site and other parameters were determined in the laboratory. After collecting the data, the obtained values were compared with the existing standards using SPSS software.
Results:  According to the collected information, there are a total of 6 active swimming pools in the city of Sari, which are 5 outdoor swimming pools and one indoor swimming pool. The total area of the existing pools is about 2044 square meters and there are a total of 32 showers, 16 toilets, and 39 changing rooms. Except for one pool, the rest of the pools are of the type of circulating system with closed circuits and equipped with a water purification device (sand filter). A mechanical chlorination system was observed only in two pools and the rest of the pools did not have this system. One of the important microbial parameters of water is the amount of Streptococcus. In none of the samples taken, the amount of this bacteria did not exceed the standard and the water of the pools was evaluated as safe for swimming. The obtained data indicate severe contamination with this bacterium. Of course, in the indoor pool, this contamination was not observed in all sampling stages, but in the other 5 outdoor pools, this contamination was observed many times. The results of the research show that the amount of residual chlorine in 61.1% of cases is lower than the standard (less than and only in Sari and women's indoor swimming pools by the existing standards.
Conclusion:  The lack of a proper chlorination system, incompleteness of water purification systems, and lack of knowledge of the pool operators about the optimal conditions of the pool have caused the pH and residual chlorine to be not optimal in most cases. According to the existing standards in swimming pools, a certain required level is considered for each swimmer, and then the capacity of the pools determines the maximum number of swimmers in each shift, so the larger the area of ​​the pool, the greater the capacity to accept swimmers, and this issue can be Wrong monitoring and management can cause water pollution in swimming pools. Statistical tests have also confirmed this issue because based on the results obtained from the Pearson correlation coefficient, a significant inverse relationship has been obtained between the area of ​​the pool and the amount of total coliform, which shows that due to the large area of ​​the pools, the index of microbial contamination of water is by the existing standards. From these results, it can be concluded that the main reason for the reduction of microbial contamination of water during the research period is the lack of swimmers and the reduction of microbial contamination. Of course, water disinfection has played a positive role in this regard, but this issue does not apply to all swimming pools.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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