Volume 30, Issue 2 (4-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 30(2): 121-131 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 1064823910064381396183257
Ethics code: 183257
Clinical trials code: 183257

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Zallaghi E, Mehrjo F, Baghkhanipour M, Zaferoni M. Evaluating the Long-Term Effects of PM2.5 Pollutant on the Indicators of Years of Lost Life and Expected Life Remaining During A Ten-Year Period (Case Study: Ahvaz City). RJMS 2023; 30 (2) :121-131
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7572-en.html
Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental and Natural Resources, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran , Farzadmehrjo@gmail.com
Abstract:   (620 Views)
Background & Aims: Environmental air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems and the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) has identified it as the fifth most dangerous human and environmental health hazard in the world. So, they are facing the problem of air pollution on a local, regional and global scale. Toxicity associated with air pollutants can cause a variety of health effects on humans such as respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and even death (1,2). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 800,000 people worldwide die prematurely each year from these diseases caused by air pollution (3). Suspended particles (Including PM2.5) are major air pollutants in terms of public health hazards. PM2.5 particulate matter penetrates deeper into the lungs and causing some of the more dangerous health effects compared to PM10 (2). Ahvaz city with an approximate population of more than 1 million people, an area of 220 square kilometers, and the capital of Khuzestan province is one of the cities in the southwest of Iran. In recent years, due to industrialization, the amount of environmental pollution, including air pollution, has been increasing in this metropolis. This study aimed to estimate the health effects of PM2.5 pollutants on years of lost life (YLL) and expected life remaining (ELR) indicators in the air of Ahvaz city from 2008 to 2017 using AirQ+ software.
Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a statistical population of 10 years for residents of Ahvaz. In this study, the long-term health effects of PM2.5 pollutants on YLL and ELR indicators in the air of Ahvaz city during the period years (2008-2017) were estimated using AirQ+ software. PM2.5 pollutant data were collected from environmental and meteorological organizations in Ahvaz city and the health effects of PM2.5 were estimated. In the next step, this data was processed by Excel software and the data processed by Excel was given to AirQ+ software. Data processing was performed using overlapping Excel sheets in the Excel environment and R and Minitab software. Also, the validation of PM2.5 data for ambient air quality in Ahvaz city was performed based on the methodology of WHO and Aphekom (16,17). PM2.5 averaging data and ELR and YLL data for the entire population in the age range of 0-64 and over 64 years were processed and entered into AirQ+ software. Also, the significant relationship between PM2.5 pollutant concentration and ELR was investigated with the Pearson correlation test at a significance level of 5%.
Results: The average annual variation of PM2.5 concentration was very variable the highest concentration was 70.72 micrograms per cubic meter in 2010 and the lowest was 41.97 micrograms per cubic meter in 2014. In all measurement years, the concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the WHO standard with a range of variations between 4.2 and 7.7 times. The highest number of YLL for ten years in the age group of 0-64 years, was 412.77 years in 2010, and the lowest number of YLL for the age group of 0-64 years, was 135.79 years related to 2014. Also, the maximum and minimum YLL for ten years for the age group over 64 years was 1135.96 years for 2010, and 262.88 years for 2014, respectively. For ELR, the highest value for the total population of Ahvaz city during ten years, at all ages for 2014 was equal to 72.56 years and the lowest in 2010 was equal to 62.17 years.
Conclusion: In all years of measuring PM2.5 (2008-2017), the amount of this pollutant in the air of Ahvaz city has been more than the WHO standard, and its range of changes between 4.2 to 7.7 times more than the standard (10 Micrograms per cubic meter). Therefore, Ahvaz is considered one of the most polluted cities in the world. The polluting factors of this city include the geographical and topographical location, the phenomenon of dust, increased transportation, being close to the Arabian desert and the large deserts of the neighboring countries, and the increase of important production industries such as oil and steel (21,22). The maximum and minimum YLL for all ages in Ahvaz city were 1548.73 years in 2010 and 398.67 years in 2014, respectively, which are linearly related to PM2.5 pollutant concentrations. The highest and lowest PM2.5 concentrations were obtained in 2010 and 2014 in Ahvaz city. From the results of this study, it was estimated that in all the studied years, people over 64 years old had higher of YLL than people aged 0-64 years. The ELR index can be useful in evaluating all the plans made in the field of health and well-being of the population. Prolonged exposure to relatively low concentrations of ambient air pollution results in a significant reduction in the ELR index (30). A comparison of the results with the Iranian standard and EPA showed that in all years the ELR from 2008 to 2017 was lower than the standard. The highest ELR index was 72.56 years (2014) and the lowest was 62.17 years (2010). The values ​​of this index had a significant relationship with the concentration of PM2.5 pollutants. The ELR index decreased and increased with increasing and decreasing the concentration of PM2.5 pollutants, respectively. By examining the significant relationship between PM2.5 pollutant concentration and ELR in Ahvaz city through Pearson's correlation test at a significance level of 5%, the correlation coefficient showed a value of -0.97, indicating a negative correlation between these two parameters.
It seems that in the west of the country, the number of days off due to dust has increased significantly in recent years. Therefore, the use of AirQ+ software not only for Ahvaz but also for other cities in the west of the country can be a powerful tool for estimating the lost years of life and reducing life expectancy attributed to PM2.5 pollution. Therefore, estimating the long-term health effects of YLL and ELR exposure to various air pollutants, including PM2.5, can be very useful to evaluate plans for health, population well-being, and the development of general environmental policies.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Public Health

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