Volume 29, Issue 12 (3-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 29(12): 275-282 | Back to browse issues page

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Farahani M, Rahimi C. Predicting Anxiety Based on Ambiguity Tolerance and Self-Efficacy in Students. RJMS 2023; 29 (12) :275-282
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7503-en.html
PhD in Clinical Psychology from Germany, Head of Counseling and Psychotherapy Center of Shiraz University, Shiraz , Iran , Crahimi@hotmail.com
Abstract:   (629 Views)
Background & Aims: Among psychological issues, anxiety is a "futuristic state of mind" in which a person is ready or preparing for the negative events of the future, indicating that there is a distinction between present and future dangers that alienate fear. Separates from anxiety (2). In fact, normal reaction anxiety is considered to be stress that may help a person cope with difficult situations. When anxiety is excessive, it may be so great that it is placed in the categories associated with anxiety disorders (2).
Another variable that can be different in different situations between individuals and students is the individual self-efficacy of students. Self-efficacy refers to a person's personality strength in dealing with problems in achieving his goals and success, and more than it is influenced by the student's intelligence and learning ability, it is influenced by personality traits such as self-confidence, diligence and submission, self-esteem , Is self-regulation and self-direction. In the age of information explosion, cultivating self-sufficient people, people who can overcome their own anxiety and learn and solve problems independently is much more important than transferring a huge amount of information (3).
Humans, on the other hand, are constantly solving problems throughout their lives. Problem solving helps people deal effectively with life's problems and challenges. When an issue is not clearly defined, ambiguity tolerance is used to construct and reconstruct solutions and interpretations. When an issue is not clearly defined, ambiguity tolerance is used to construct and reconstruct solutions and interpretations (4).
Due to the above and the impact of anxiety on students' lives on the one hand, the identification of important factors and factors related to anxiety on the other hand and considering that research in the field and research was not found in the field The researcher seeks to answer the questions of whether there is a relationship between students' tolerance of ambiguity, anxiety and self-efficacy? Can tolerance of ambiguity and anxiety be able to predict anxiety in students?
Methods: To conduct the present descriptive research, which is a type of basic and applied research, among male and female students of Farhangian University (former teacher training), Tehran in the academic year 1394-2014, based on multi-stage sampling of 150 people with a minimum of Undergraduate education was selected as a sample and then the questionnaires of McDonald (1970), Beck Anxiety (1998) and the self-efficacy of Scherer et al. (1982) were distributed and collected among the sample. After removing incomplete and invalid questionnaires, a total of 142 questionnaires were collected. Finally, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation and linear regression tests were used simultaneously with the help of SPSS software for statistical analysis of data.
Results: The results showed that the sum of the variables used (self-efficacy and ambiguity tolerance) predicted 18% of the variance of students' anxiety. Given that F calculated at the level less than 0.01 is significant, so the linear regression model is significant. The results of regression analysis show that self-efficacy at the level (= = 0.01) is able to significantly predict students' anxiety and t-test is significant for the significance of regression coefficients at the level less than 0.01. In other words, with increasing self-efficacy score, students' anxiety score decreases and vice versa. Given that β is the standardized coefficient of regression, it is clear that self-efficacy with an coefficient of explanation (0.393) is more effective in predicting student anxiety.
Conclusion: The results showed that the variables of self-efficacy and ambiguity tolerance predict 18% of the variance of anxiety in students. Also, the results of regression analysis showed that self-efficacy is able to significantly predict students 'anxiety. In other words, with increasing self-efficacy score, students' anxiety score decreases and vice versa. It was also found that self-efficacy was more effective in predicting student anxiety.
Explaining this finding, it can be said that tolerating the ambiguity of a personality variable is perceptual-emotional. In the clinical literature, ambiguity tolerance is a cognitive characteristic that can predict the risk of anxiety disorder. Tolerance of ambiguity is associated with negative anxiety and expectation about the future and is therefore always considered in research on anxiety disorders (11). Self-efficacy also refers to a person's perceived ability to perform a desired action. This means that evaluating one's abilities in a situation influences one's decision to act or avoid that situation, and because fear of judgment and negative evaluation prevents anxious people from displaying their abilities, The person is drawn to avoidance, passivity, and ultimately the inability to perform functional activities. Therefore, it is likely that a common factor in the structure of anxiety and low self-efficacy is the inability to understand individual competencies and adequacy and the misconception about the failure of activities (13).
Beliefs about strong self-efficacy have been suggested as a powerful personal resource in dealing with stressful situations. Much evidence has been reported on the effect of self-efficacy beliefs on blood pressure with heart rate in heart patients. According to Bandura, self-efficacy related to one's judgments can affect one's actions in future situations. When a person is examining behavior or performing a task, he or she also makes judgments about his or her ability to perform the task and its circumstances. These judgments about self-efficacy affect a person's thinking about the ability or inability to do work and the individual's excitement and performance (14). The main focus of social cognitive theory is that self-efficacy beliefs strongly influence human performance. According to Graham and Wiener, self-efficacy is the most consistent predictor of behavioral outcomes relative to any other motivational structure (15). In predicting student anxiety.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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