Volume 29, Issue 6 (9-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(6): 178-187 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری است
Ethics code: IR.IAU.SHK.REC.1400.012
Clinical trials code: ----

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Zadafshar B, Sharifi T, Ahmadi R, Chorami M. Comparison the of Effect of Emotion-Oriented and Existential Group Therapy on the Defense Mechanisms of Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Isfahan. RJMS 2022; 29 (6) :178-187
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7445-en.html
Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran , sharifi_ta@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (888 Views)
Background & Aims: Sexual harassment, or in other words, the use of children and adolescents for sexual gratification, is one of the forms of harassment of children and adolescents that occurs at all ages from childhood to adolescence, and the adverse consequences and sometimes irreparable harm to health and well-being. Adults are large in size (2). In this regard, research has shown that child abuse, in addition to the destructive short-term consequences it has on the child, causes the child to feel insecure, anxious, distracted, afraid, depressed, inattentive, and post-traumatic stress disorder behaviors; It will also have long-term consequences (4).
Given the above and the negative impact of sexual harassment in childhood on individual and social life and causing great material and spiritual damage to the individual and society, researchers and experts are constantly seeking to discover new ways to reduce these effects. And help the mental and physical condition of the victims, and in this regard, various medical and non-arbitrary methods have been used. However, among the methods that have been considered recently, emotion-oriented therapy can be modernist and experimental therapy (5), which points to the important role of emotions and emotional communication in organizing communication patterns and considers emotions as a factor of change. Takes (6).
On the other hand, existential psychotherapy, by emphasizing important concepts such as responsibility, presence in existence, freedom, choice, search for meaning and especially constant self-awareness, has provided a unique way to treat existential anxiety (11). Existential therapy provides the therapist and client with the opportunity to understand how the client chooses how to express their "individuality." In the existential treatment of worldviews, values, beliefs, as well as the type of worldview of people and the events we face; It becomes clear (12).
In general, the review of existing research shows that so far no comprehensive and similar research has been conducted that simultaneously examines the impact of both emotion-oriented and existential therapies on the psychological issues of victims of sexual harassment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of emotion-oriented and existential group therapy on the defense mechanisms of victims of child sexual abuse in Isfahan.
Methods: For the present quasi-experimental research, which was performed with a pre-test-post-test-follow-up plan and a control group, among those with a history of being victims of any sexual abuse in a child who had referred to psychology centers in Isfahan in 1398 and 1399, Eligibility criteria for the study were 45 people were selected as available and randomly divided into three groups of emotion-oriented therapy, existential and control. After completing the consent form, the subjects in the experimental groups received 8 sessions of interventions. It should be noted that before, after and 3-month follow-up period, research variables were measured. The research tool also included the following:
Laserman Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (LSHQ) which includes 7 questions with yes and no answers. Scoring in this test indicates that the person is a victim of at least one type of sexual harassment. And the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ-40), a new version of which was developed by Andrews et al.
In the present study, the reliability of the internal consistency method using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the three defense styles developed, immature and psychotic is equal to 0.68, 0.75 and 0.71, respectively, which are acceptable coefficients.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the scores of developed and psychoactive defense mechanisms in the three stages of pre-test, post-test and follow-up measurement and the interactive effect of their measurement stages with the group (P <0.01). The results also showed that in the developed defense mechanism, a significant difference is observed in the measurement stages, while such a difference is not seen due to the interaction of time with the group (Table 3).
As the results of Table 4 show, with the significance of time within the groups with F calculated for immature (28.86), mature (3.11) and psychotic (13.61); Confirms the existence of a significant difference between the three measurements of pre-test, post-test and follow-up at the level of P <0.01.
The results also showed that the interactive effects of the two immature and psychotic styles with F calculated at 11.86 and 10.14 were significant, but with no significant source in the group between the control and experimental groups in all three styles; It can be said that there is no significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental groups, emotion therapy, existential therapy and the control group (P <0.05). No (Table 4).
Conclusion: The results showed that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental therapy, existential therapy and control groups. Regarding the findings of the present study, it should be noted that sexual harassment is a complex problem that has various physical, psychological and legal aspects. The use of coping strategies and defense mechanisms reduces vulnerability in stressful situations such as sexual harassment (18). But it should be noted that emotionally empowered people make it easier for them to face life's challenges and, as a result, have better mental health. These people are more successful in coping with negative experiences and show better adaptation to the environment and others (19).
In emotion-oriented therapy, the therapist focuses on raising awareness of the mental content that has been denied or distorted by the therapist in order to create new meaning influenced by the client's physical experience (5). Approaching bitter mental and emotional experiences for victims of child sexual abuse is often a difficult and tedious process. In addition to building an effective relationship, the therapist's mission is to teach emotion regulation skills. Therefore, the therapist has based his treatment on the self-improvement and balance of the person and tries to self-regulate the person and his emotional system through positive self-concept, and in treatment sessions, he widely uses treatment methods to express new feelings. Slowly (12).
An existential therapist helps individuals and victims of child sexual abuse find meaning in life in the face of anxiety and stress, and this is achieved through the use of thinking power, responsible action, and coping with negative thoughts and social pressures. According to what has been stated in the above explanation, it can be stated that since the existential components directly involve the victim with the existence and existential processes, the person looks at the process of change in a deep and conscious way. This process always requires the victim to allow a part of him or her that has been hidden or repressed to come to the realm of awareness and analysis so that the person has the opportunity to make a more informed choice and gain a deeper perspective on issues.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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