Volume 29, Issue 1 (3-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(1): 120-130 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 1809
Ethics code: IR.ARUMS.REC.1399.406
Clinical trials code: IR.ARUMS.REC.1399.406

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Atadokht A, Ahmadi S. Presentations Model of Mobile Phone Dependency on Social Anxiety Mediated by Alexithymia. RJMS 2022; 29 (1) :120-130
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7019-en.html
Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran , ak_atadokht@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1188 Views)
Background & Aims: Mobile phone addiction is considered as an important factor in causing a variety of psychological, behavioral and emotional problems.This study aimed to The aim of this study was to present a model of cell phone dependence based on social anxiety with the mediating role of Alexithymia in students.
Today, technologies have completely disrupted the lives of people of all ages, especially young people and adolescents (1). Mobile phones have been expanding in recent decades due to the numerous benefits they offer, such as the ability to move and browse the Internet, as well as access to social networks, real-time information streaming, cameras and multimedia players (2). Researchers have recently shown how mobile devices give students access to learning resources at any time and place, as well as their use by teachers in teaching and interactive tutoring (3). However, although mobile phones have many benefits, especially in the field of education, especially in learning outcomes (4) and in increasing students' motivation and commitment (6), their excessive use can have negative consequences. In children and adolescents, whether personally or in their family, educational and social life (7). Mobile phones, on the other hand, are devices that are capable of processing information that includes access to the Internet and social networks, messaging and multimedia in addition to their main function as a means of communication (10) since people almost always have their own mobile phones. And can use their mobile phones several times during the day, using mobile phones may become an automatic behavior that is done without reflection (11).It seems that one of the variables that play a role in cell phone dependence is social anxiety. Researchers have proven that people use cell phones as a substitute for social interaction when they feel anxious in a real environment (13). Social anxiety disorder is a severe and persistent fear of situations in which a person is in the company of others or has to do something about them. People with this disorder are afraid of any situation in which they think they will be negatively evaluated by others and try. They can stay away from them (14). Finally, one of the structures that can play a mediating variable in cell phone dependence is Alexithymia. Alexithymia refers to the difficulty in identifying and describing one's own feelings and those of others and the inability to distinguish between one's own feelings and those of others and one's external stylistics (18). Because in previous studies, the framework of how a person is dependent on mobile phones has not been examined using social anxiety and alexithymia variables, and given the importance of young people's dependence on mobile phones both theoretically and practically and the many harms that This issue affects the psyche of students. By determining the relative share of each of these variables, it is necessary to address the underlying factors.
Methods: In this descriptive study, the statistical population included all students of Mohaghegh Ardebili University in the second semester of the academic year 2020. A total of 205 of these individuals were selected by available sampling method and individually answered the questionnaires on mobile phone dependence, social anxiety and alexithymia. Since according to many researchers, the minimum sample size required in structural models is 200 (29), the sample size in the present study was 250 considering the probability of sample loss, which after deleting the pert data, 205 questions. The letter was entered into statistical analysis. The sampling method used was also available. The method of data collection was that according to the coronary status and quarantine conditions and the lack of access to students in person, questionnaires in two parts, the first part includes demographic information (age, gender, marital status, degree, field of study The second part included questionnaires on cell phone dependency, social anxiety, and alexithymia online by linking them to class groups and channels created in virtual networks. University (provided to the subjects from June 10 to September 6), where 260 answers were completed and 55 questionnaires were removed due to incomplete completion. The data collected in this study were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as mean and standard deviation and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS software version 25 and structural equation modeling using Lisrel software version 8.8. Significance level in the tests was considered 0.05.
Results: Out of 205 subjects whose data were included in statistical analysis, 125 subjects (60.98%) were girls with a mean age of 28.60 and the standard deviation was 5.47 and 80 subjects (39.02%) were boys with a mean age of 30.35 and Standard deviation of 5.85 participated in this study. In terms of educational level, 130 people (53.65%) had a bachelor's degree, 70 people (34.14%) had a master's degree and 5 people (2.43%) were studying for a doctorate. In terms of field of study, 80 people (39.09%) in psychology, 70 people (34.14%) in counseling and guidance, 15 people (7.31) in mathematics, 15 people (7.31%) in urban planning management, 11 people (36.5% were Persian literature, 7 (3.41) were chemists and 7 (3.41) were biologists. In terms of marital status, 95 (46.34%) were married and 110 (53.65%) were single. In terms of using virtual applications, 62 people (30.24%) Telegram, 81 people (39.51%) Instagram, 28 people (13.65%) WhatsApp, 18 people (8.78%) Facebook and 16 people (7.80%) reported mobile SMS and in terms of economic status, 49 (23.90%) reported good, 411 (68.78%) moderate and 15 (7.31%) poor.
The results of correlation coefficient showed that mobile phone dependence was positively associated with social anxiety and alexithymia. Alexithymia is also positively associated with social anxiety (p <0.001). To determine the adequacy of the proposed model fit with the data, normalized Chi-square indices, comparative fit index and the square root of the mean squares of the estimation error were used. The values of each of these indicators are between 0 and 1, and values close to or greater than 0.90 indicate that the model is desirable. The CFI for this model is 0.99, which is in the acceptable range. Since the square root of the mean squared estimation error (RMSEA) for the model is 0.057, on the other hand, the acceptable range for it is less than 0.08, so it can be said that the fitted model is a suitable model. The normalized chi-square index (CMIN / DF) and the comparative fit index (CFI) are within acceptable range.
In general, model fit indices also confirmed the path of social anxiety towards cell phone dependence mediated by Alexithymia.
Conclusion: Considering the role of social anxiety and the mediating role of Alexithymia in the addictive use of mobile phones, holding practical workshops in universities by counselors, psychologists, and health agents to regulate and manage emotions and teach social skills and inform students of the consequences. Negative cell phone dependence is recommended. The use of questionnaires and lack of control over demographic variables (economic, social and cultural status) were the two main limitations of the present study. It is suggested that more objective tools be used in future studies to collect data and control demographic variables. Considering the role of social anxiety and the mediating role of Alexithymia in the addictive use of mobile phones in terms of application, holding workshops in universities by counselors, psychologists and health agents to regulate and manage emotions and teach social skills and inform students of the negative consequences of dependence Recommended for mobile phones.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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