Volume 29, Issue 1 (3-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(1): 153-165 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 0
Ethics code: HUMS.REC.1398.482
Clinical trials code: 0

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Samimagham H R, Hassani Azad M, Arabi M, Hooshyar D, Sheikhtaheri A, Khorrami F, et al . Comorbidites of COVID-19 in Patients with and without Diabetes. RJMS 2022; 29 (1) :153-165
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6988-en.html
Associate Professor, Endocrinology and Metablism Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran , mitra.kazemijahromi@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1134 Views)

Background & Aims: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by SARS-COV-2, which affects the lower respiratory tract, and causes pneumonia in patients. The disease rapidly spread around the world after the outbreak in late 2019, and became one of the challenges of health care systems.
Older adults and patients with underlying diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes are at a higher risk for COVID-19, and need more care. Due to its prevalence in older adults and normal population, diabetes is important in terms of putting a burden on intensive care systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes is also one of the most common comorbidities in patients with COVID-19, which is considered a risk factor for these patients. In addition, the association between diabetes and respiratory distress syndrome is not yet fully understood. Some studies have suggested that diabetes is not associated with respiratory distress syndrome while some others suggest that pulmonary dysfunction follows diabetes. It is also unclear what factors are associated with disease prognosis and mortality in COVID-19 patients with diabetes.
In the current study, we aimed to investigate the status of demographic factors, comorbidities, lifestyle and laboratory results in diabetic patients with COVID-19, and compare them with the non-diabetic population and determine the prognostic factors in diabetic patients with COVID-19.
Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study performed on 415 patients with COVID-19 in the COVID-19 ward of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences from February to September 2020. Based on their diabetes, these patients were divided into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Then, data on demographic factors, smoking, opioids and alcohol consumption, comorbidities (chronic lung disease, asthma, obesity, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, dementia, malnutrition, chronic neurological disease, rheumatic disease, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, favism, hyperlipidemia, and malignant neoplasms), some personal lifestyle features were determined in diabetic patients and compared with non-diabetic populations. Also, the information on biochemical variables, including hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophils, hematocrit, platelets, prothrombin time, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, C reactive protein were measured patients of the two groups. Also, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation were determined in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
 Quantitative variables were described by number (n) and percentage (٪). Qualitative variables were described using mean and standard deviation (SD), median and interquartile range (IQR). The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the normality of quantitative variables. Independent t-test or Man-Whitney U test, and Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables. In all statistical analyses, a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical analysis was performed by IBM SPSS version 22 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA).
Results: The findings of our study showed that in the diabetic patients’ group 82 patients (41.2%) and in the non-diabetic population 135 patients (55.32 %) were men. In the diabetic group, the mean age of recovered patients was 58.52 years and the mean age of those in the deceased was 57.73 years, which was not statistically significant. In the non-diabetic group, the mean age of patients recovered was 47.98 years and the mean age of those in the deceased was 62.58 years, which was statistically significant (p <0.001). In the diabetic population, 773 patients (42.69 %) and in the non-diabetic population, 132 patients (54.09 %) had positive PCR. In the diabetic population, 18 patients (10.59 %) and in the non-diabetic population, 10 patients (4.09 %) had chronic kidney disease. In the diabetic population, 11 patients (6.43 %) and in the non-diabetic population, 13 patients (5.32 %) smoked.
In the population of diabetic patients, the mean level of hemoglobin (P = 0.002) and lymphocyte count (P = 0.043) in the living cases were significantly lower than those in the deceased. The mean levels of neutrophils (P = 0.012), aspartate transaminase (P = 0.020), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.041), blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.003), and creatinine (P = 0.011) in the diabetic population were significantly higher in the living cases than those in the deceased, but the comparison of these cases in the non-diabetic population did not show a significant difference.
In diabetic patients, there was a significant difference between the number of survival and death in each group of positive and negative PCR (P = 0.011); While the difference in mortality and survival between PCR positive and negative groups in non-diabetic subjects was not significant. In diabetic patients, a significant difference was also reported between the number of survival and death in groups with CKD and without CKD; while in non-diabetic participants there was no significant difference between CKD and non-CKD groups in terms of survival and death. Corticosteroid treatment also significantly led to a difference in the number of survival and death cases among the diabetic population, but a comparison of these cases in the non-diabetic population did not show a significant difference.
In the group of diabetic patients, respiration rate (number of breaths per minute) was significantly lower among the living cases compared to those in the deceased (P < 0.05), while our findings in this regard did not show a significant difference in non-diabetic individuals. Also, in diabetic patients, the amount of oxygen saturation was significantly higher among the living cases than those in the deceased (P < 0.05), in which case the same results were observed in non-diabetic patients (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: In this study, the mortality rate in diabetic patients was significantly associated with lymphopenia, elevated aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine compared to non-diabetic patients.  Our findings suggest that individuals with type 2 diabetes are more prone to complications of COVID-19 and its related mortality; therefore these patients need more medical attention in the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, considering that so far limited studies have focused on the possible differences in the complications of Covid-19 disease and its mortality in diabetic individuals compared to non-diabetic individuals, it is recommended that more studies with higher sample sizes in other populations be performed to confirm the results of the present study.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Infectious Disease

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