Volume 28, Issue 6 (9-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(6): 127-140 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 20421458971005
Ethics code: IR.IAU.SHR.REC.1399.046
Clinical trials code: .

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Mafakher L, Khatibi A, hojabrnia Z, Nadri A. Qualitative analysis of the occurrence of aggressive behaviors in competitive conditions. RJMS 2021; 28 (6) :127-140
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6832-en.html
Department of Sport Management, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran , khatibi83@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1584 Views)
Background & Aims: The goal of all sports is to maximize the physical and mental strength of the players and eliminate the disruptive factors that may negatively affect the sports performance. Football, like other human activities, is tied to psychological concepts such as anxiety, excitement, stress, aggression, etc., each of which can affect the performance of athletes. Aggression is one of the variables that play a decisive role in competitive sports (1, 2). Violent acts and aggressive behaviors have unfortunately been common in human societies for a long time. Aggression is the perpetration of any verbal or non-verbal behavior that directly or indirectly targets the physical and mental harm of others. According to this definition, violence in the world is the only part that aims to harm others (2, 3). In today's world of sports, physical and tactical abilities and specialized skills alone do not guarantee success. Many athletes do their best in training. However, when it comes to competition, confrontation with competitors, the media and spectators, and other stressful situations, they experience emotional reactions. There are different emotions, including anger, fear, hope, despair, worry, pride, sadness, which express emotional and psychological emotions and related physical symptoms (3). Sports activities are often associated with aggression due to the need to fight and compete. However, aggression is a vague concept that can be defined through various characteristics. Aggression is an interpersonal behavior that seeks to cause physical or mental harm (4). Wrestling is one of the most honorable sports and the so-called first sport in our country, and winning various world and international titles has been able to attract talented young people to the sport of wrestling. Wrestling halls are always full of teenagers and young people who are motivated to walk and practice in the path of the popular heroes of this discipline. However, getting on the path to the championship of this sport is smooth with many difficulties and many wrestlers withdraw from it in the early stages of the championship (4-6). The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm of aggressive behaviors in competitive events (Case study of Khuzestan wrestling).
Methods: The research method is a qualitative case study and the participants were experts and specialists aware of sports. Using purposive sampling method and theoretical saturation technique, key informants (including 12 people) were selected to identify the framework of the aggression behavior model and interviewed. The tool used to identify the factors of the aggression behavior model in a competitive environment, interviews were semi-structured (with focus groups) and documents were studied. To ensure the validity and reliability of the study, the Lincoln and Guba evaluation methods were used. For this purpose, four criteria for this purpose, four criteria of validity (reliability), transferability, reliability and verifiability have been considered for evaluation.
Results: In this study, causal conditions are three categories of competition management, competition conditions and facilities and services. Underlying conditions, electronic equipment factors and security system and atmosphere were also identified. The conditions that need to be considered for better success in the implementation of this process. Interfering conditions have a positive or negative effect on athletes' behavior and variety of refereeing and can disrupt, facilitate, and accelerate the use of violence. In this study, the main factor in creating the process of pattern of aggressive behaviors in competitive events, social, cultural factors and executive factors is considered as a central category. The last part of the model of the pattern of aggressive behaviors in competitive events includes the development of ethics and cultural development and planning.
Conclusion: In this study, there are three categories of competition management, competition conditions and facilities and services that can affect the pattern of aggressive behaviors in competitive events. One of the factors affecting the incidence of violence and aggression is the behavior of athletes. Today in the conditions of competition and sports competition, due to the conditions prevailing in the competition such as doping wrestlers, severe stress of athletes, lack of knowledge of athletes about the rules and regulations, insult or disrespect to the athlete that the athlete may be so tense and Stress that causes irreversible behaviors on the field of play that can harm the athlete and the sports team. The tendency to win or win is a reflection of individual choices and responses during a sporting activity. This is consistent with the findings of Hwang et al. (2019), Spaaij and Schaillée (2019) (15, 16). In this research, the factors of electronic equipment and security system and atmosphere are the main underlying factors. This finding is consistent with the results of research by asiaga-Pasternak et al. (2020), Milovanović et al. (2020) and Lake (2020) (5, 11, 12). Accordingly, the theory of instinctive aggression is internal aggression and a genetic component, and exercise is a suitable and acceptable means to let go of aggression. Interventional terms include more general terms such as time, space, and culture that act as facilitators or limiters of strategies. These conditions work to facilitate or limit interaction / interaction in a particular context. Each of these conditions forms a spectrum whose effects vary from very far too very close. In this study, two categories of athletes' behavior and refereeing diversity are considered as intervening categories. Which is consistent with the research of Chawla  and Singh (2017), Afacan et al. (2017), Cusimano et al. (2016), Gazar and Raziek (2010) (17-20). The central category resulting from causal conditions, social, cultural and executive factors is considered. This finding is consistent with the results of Karimi and Mohammadi (2020), Shokoufeh and Türkmen (2020) (3, 6), The researcher has named the sub-category as determining social and cultural factors and executive factors according to the set of concepts that have been extracted from the interviews and the final codes. The consequences are the same as the outcomes or results of actions and reactions. The pattern of aggressive behaviors in competitive events includes the development of ethics and cultural development and planning. Which is consistent with the findings of Knapton et al. (2018) and Yusoff (2016) (21, 22). Therefore, the following factors can be mentioned as effective factors in preventing and reducing violence: Sports managers should equip the health of the stadiums with modern and suitable facilities and make the spectators comfortable. Audience quotes to consider. Executive officials should pay special attention to the selection of judges. Hold refereeing classes to train referees. Increase media coverage of competitions to promote sports culture. 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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