Volume 28, Issue 8 (11-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(8): 44-53 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.PNU.REC.1398.059

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Geramfard N, Naghibi S, Shariatzadeh Joneydi M, Barzegari A, Saadatmand M. Changes in PKa gene expression following three models of continuous training with moderate, high intensity and high intermittent intensity training in liver tissue of male Wistar rats. RJMS 2021; 28 (8) :44-53
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6678-en.html
University of Payame Noor, Tehran, Iran , sdnaghibi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1343 Views)
Background & Aims: The liver is a metabolic organ responsible for the detoxification of various substances. Harmful metabolic products formed in other organs can be indirectly affected. The liver contains proteins and enzymes with large antioxidant capacity. Many biochemical markers are involved in regulating liver behavior; obviously, evaluating the behavior of these markers is effective in identifying mechanisms affecting liver function. Protein kinase-A (PKa) is a hepatic protein marker whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and is dependent on the protein kinase AMP Is also famous. PKa So far, several links have been observed between PKa gene expression and cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis, which lead to the importance of this protein as one of the influential factors in the level of general health. Thus, tracking PKa signaling can identify pathways and health-related changes. Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on liver function and improves its metabolism and antioxidant capacity. Following aerobic exercise, hepatic enzyme markers have been shown to significantly decrease and improve liver function in patients. Periodic exercises are an effective approach to improving the capacity of aerobic and anaerobic systems. These exercises have been shown to increase oxidative and glycolytic enzymes. Few studies have compared the different intensities of exercise on cell signaling pathways in liver tissue. On the other hand, studies that have examined PKa have yielded conflicting results. Although in several studies this increase in PKa levels following physical activity has not been observed, aerobic exercise with different intensities seems to have a direct effect on liver factors, but given that the effects of different types Aerobic training with different intensities has been performed on Pka liver markers; Therefore, in this study, following the answer to the question whether there is a significant difference between the three training methods of HIIT, HIT and MIT on the expression of Pka gene in liver tissue?
Methods: In the present study, 32 8-week-old male Wistar rats with an average weight of 237 ±33 g were purchased from the Pasteur Institute. After being transferred to the animal laboratory environment, these animals are housed in transparent polycarbonate cages in an environment with a temperature of 22 ± 1.4 °C, the humidity of 45 to 55%, four heads in each cage with free access to water and closed. Foods were maintained according to a 12-hour sleep-wake cycle. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (Co) (8 heads), moderate intensity training (MIT) (8 heads), high-intensity training (HIT) (8 heads), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 heads) were divided.
The MIT protocol was performed in such a way that in the first week, 5 minutes of warm-up, 5 minutes of cooling, and 20 minutes of the main body of the exercise, including running at 65% VO2max at a speed of 20 m/min, was added to the training time every week. In the sixth week, the training time reached 37 minutes and remained constant until the end of the eighth. Also, the training speed was unchanged from the first week to the eighth week and was equal to 20 meters per minute.
The HIT protocol in the first week included: 5 minutes of warm-up, 5 minutes of cooling, and 20 minutes of running training with 65% VO2max at a speed of 20 m/min and an increasing slope of the treadmill. The training time was increased every week, so that in the sixth week the training time reached 30 minutes and remained constant until the end of the eighth. On the other hand, the slope of the strip was 2% in the first and second weeks and 2% was added to the slope every 2 weeks to reach 8% in the seventh and eighth weeks. Also, the training speed from the first week to the eighth week was 20 meters per minute and was kept constant.
The HIIT protocol also included 10 minutes of warm-up before the workout, in the first to fourth weeks including 3 intense intermittent runs with an intensity of 90 to 100% VO2max and a speed of 30 meters per minute in 4 minutes and 3 low-intensity intermittent runs. With 50 to 60% VO2max and at a speed of 20 meters per minute in 3 minutes. From the fifth to the eighth week, it also includes 4 intense intermittent runs with an intensity of 90 to 100% VO2max at a speed of 30 meters per minute in 4 minutes and 3 low-intensity intermittent runs with 50 to 60% VO2max at a speed of 20 meters per minute. It took 3 minutes. The main body time of the exercise was 28 minutes per repetition. Mice in the control group did not participate in any exercise program but were placed on a stationary treadmill for 10 to 15 minutes per session to adapt to the environment to create the same conditions.
After in vitro analysis of the samples, descriptive statistics including standard mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics were used to quantitatively describe the data. First, the Shapirovilk test was used to determine the normality of data distribution, and the Leven test was used to determine the homogeneity of variance. Due to the normal distribution of data, parametric tests including one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were used at a significance level of p≥0.05.
Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the expression of Pka gene in the liver tissue of rats in the study groups (p<0.001). Findings of the Tukey post hoc test also showed that there was no significant difference in pka gene expression between MIT and HIT groups compared to the HIIT group (p= 0.746, p= 0.565, respectively). While there is a significant difference between HIIT and control groups (P = 0.001), so that in the HIIT group it has increased by 0.004 units compared to the control group. Also, a post hoc test in training groups showed that there was no significant difference in pka gene expression between HIT and MIT groups (p= 0.364). However, there was a significant difference in PKa gene expression between MIT and HIT groups compared to the control group (p= 0.001), so that in MIT group 0.005 units and HIT group 0.003 units Increased to the control group.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that three different training methods (MIT, HIT and HIIT) increased the level of PKa in rat liver tissue and the difference between the effect of the present training protocols and the path of their possible signaling mechanisms is not clear. More research is needed in this area.
 

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Physiology

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