Volume 30, Issue 7 (10-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 30(7): 1-12 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: ۱۶۰۲۱۸
Ethics code: IR.IAU.NAJAFABAD.REC.1399.039
Clinical trials code: اين پژوهش کارآزمايي باليني نيست

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Vahid Harandi S, Ansari Shahidi M, Haghayegh S A, Raeisi Z. Relationship between Interpersonal Emotion Regulation and Social Support with Tendency to Cosmetic Surgery. RJMS 2023; 30 (7) :1-12
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6372-en.html
Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University , dransarishahidii@gmail.com
Abstract:   (542 Views)

Background & Aims: Nowadays, cosmetic surgeries are one of the most common surgeries all over the world, and the number of applicants of such surgeries is increasingly growing (1). Most of the researchers agree that the main factors involved in the tendency to cosmetic surgeries include the problems related to body image and low life satisfaction and self-esteem. These factors suggest the important role of the psychological factors in the individuals’ tendency to cosmetic surgeries (3). Explaining the theories related to emotion regulation strategies, Aldao et al. suggested that emotion regulation dysfunctions can cause significant psychological outcomes (4). In general, interpersonal emotion regulation and applying that in human relationships can be useful for self-awareness and awareness of the others’ emotions, restraint, communicating with the other people, and positive use of the emotions in thinking and cognition (5). According to the results of a study, there is a significant relationship between the nose job applicants and the control group members in terms of emotion regulation; so that the nose job applicants got lower scores of emotion regulation (6). Also, another study suggested that emotional instability, a poor body image and tendency to cosmetic surgery can be predicted by emotional distress and emotional instability (7). Perceived social support has positive effects on mental health. Social support is a way of categorizing the social rewards under special conditions. Social support is defined as the companionship and attention received from the family members, friends, and other people (8). According to studies, people with a poor body image are usually introverted and they report the significant symptoms of social anxiety (9). However, social support is an important variable affecting the intensity of the body image symptoms (10). Ata et al. reported that emotional support of the family members can be a protection against the impacts of the media and friends. Finally, the perceived support of the friends can intensify the negative body image (11). It is normal to use the cosmetic surgeries to improve the physical problems (12). However, excessive cosmetic surgeries indicate a negative behavior. The demand for cosmetic surgeries has been increasingly growing in recent years, and such surgeries can cause severe physical and financial consequences that are irreparable in most cases. So, it is necessary to investigate the individual and social dimensions of this phenomenon in terms of psychological issues. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between interpersonal emotion regulation and social support with the tendency to cosmetic surgery.
Methods: The present research is a descriptive correlation research. The population includes all the applicants of cosmetic surgery referring to the Khane Sefid, Erfan, and Dr. Nilforoushzadeh Clinics of Tehran from June 21th, 2020 until July 22th, 2020. According to the statistics of the applicants in the past year, it was found that the average number of applicants referring to the mentioned clinics is about 780 to 900 people. In order to increase the generalizability of the results, the average population was considered as 900 cases per month. Based on the Krejcie-Morgan table (13), the minimum sample size to represent the population was determined as 269 people. However, the sample size was considered 360 people to decrease the sample decline. So, 120 people were selected from each of the mentioned clinics. Data collection was done by three standard questionnaires, including Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Meanwhile, a general checklist including the demographic information (age, gender, marriage duration, the number of children, employment status, education level, the monthly income, and the record of cosmetic surgery) was distributed among the subjects. Data analysis was done by Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise linear regression in SPSS-19 software.
Results: In this research, 360 questionnaires were distributed among the subjects. However, 322 complete questionnaires were collected. The participation rate was estimated as 98.44%. The average age of the participants was 20-60 years with the mean (standard deviation) of 37.80 (9.27). According to the results of Pearson test, there was a significant negative correlation between cosmetic surgery and interpersonal emotion regulation (r= -0.304) and perceived social support (r= -0.338) (P˂0.05). According to the regression analysis, perceived social support could explain 0.11 of the variance of cosmetic surgery tendency. Meanwhile, with the inclusion of the interpersonal emotion regulation in the equation, the multiple correlation coefficient was increased to 0.16. According to the findings, perceived social support and interpersonal emotion regulation had a negative correlation with cosmetic surgery tendency with the respective coefficients of -0.28 and -0.23. Based on the results of t-test and its significance level, the obtained coefficients are significant. According to the β values of the mentioned variables, in the case of constant conditions for the remaining variables, a unit increase of the mentioned variables can lead to the increase of the cosmetic surgery tendency score by -0.28 and -0.23. In other words, perceived social support and interpersonal emotion regulation are effective in the tendency to cosmetic surgery.
Conclusion: It was found that the perceived social support and interpersonal emotion regulation respectively have the strongest effects on the tendency to cosmetic surgery. The findings about the role of perceived social support are consistent with the results reported by Ata et al. (11), Ahmadi et al. (14), and Kabudi et al. (15). To explain this finding, it can be stated that the social support received from the key individuals is important in two aspects: first, the role of the social support and second, the presence of the support resources. The encouragement received from the other people, especially the key individuals is one of the resources of positive self-concept. So, the presence of these persons and their social support can provide an encouragement resource and decrease the tendency to cosmetic surgery (14). The findings about the role of interpersonal emotion regulation are consistent with the results reported by Eisazadegan et al. (6), Sorlie and Javo (7), and Shirmohammadi et al. (16). This finding can be explained by the fact that a person with developed emotion management ability can experience the emotions or inhibit them without any internal or external force. Cosmetic surgeries are more common among the individuals affected by personality disorders such as dependent personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. These types of personality are affected by emotion regulation dysfunction. So, it can be concluded that lack of emotion management ability can lead to the tendency to cosmetic surgery (6). Finally, it was found that the tendency to cosmetic surgery can be predicted by interpersonal emotion regulation and social support. Therefore, it is suggested for the psychologists to focus on the role of the two mentioned variables to decrease the tendency to cosmetic surgery. The last suggestion is to provide emotion regulation training for the individuals and improve their social support to decrease their tendency to cosmetic surgery.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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