Volume 28, Issue 11 (1-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 28(11): 35-47 | Back to browse issues page

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Nabati souha L, Alebrahim M T, Habibi Yangjeh A, Feizpoor S. Green Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Extract of Aerial Organs of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.). RJMS 2022; 28 (11) :35-47
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6350-en.html
Professor, Department of Plant production and genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran , m_ebrahim@uma.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1772 Views)
Background & Aims: Nanotechnology is one of the newest, most important and most efficient sciences in the world. It is an interdisciplinary technology that has caused significant changes and developments in the sciences by solving problems and shortcomings. Nanoscience and nanotechnology is the production of nanometer-sized material that has recently attracted the attention of many researchers in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. The great importance and application of this technology has attracted much attention. Nanoparticles are particles about 1 to 100 nm the properties of these materials depend on their nanometer size. Nano materials have unique properties including lightweight and small nanoparticles, High surface-to-mass ratio, using in small quantities, saving consumables, being multifunctional and safe for the environment. Chitosan is a linear amino polysaccharide that has been taken into consideration for its properties such as non-toxicity, antibacterial properties, adhesion properties, unique structure, multidimensional properties and high performance. Physical and chemical methods are mostly used to produce nanoparticles. Although these methods may be successful and well-known, they are generally expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative methods such as microorganisms, fungi, plants, plant extracts and plant biomass should be used instead, which have less environmental hazards. Among the methods of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles, green synthesis using plant extracts is more beneficial than other methods. Many plant biomolecules such as polyphenols, flavonoids, amino acids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, alcohols, vitamins and proteins can play a role in the formation and stabilization of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to develop a green method using the extract of the aerial parts of the Russian knapweed to prepare and produce chitosan nanoparticles.
Methods: In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized in a process by the extract of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) which containing phenolic compounds. In order to preparation the materials needed for the experiment, the aerial parts of the Russian knapweed in the pre-flowering stage were collected from a land in Ardabil with severe contamination. The collected plant was transferred to the weed laboratory and dried at 60 °C for 72 h in the oven. The dried samples were powdered by a grinding (mill) machine. The aqueous extract was prepared by maceration method. 100, 150 and 200 grams of Russian knapweed powder in to erlenmeyer flask spilled and then added a certain amount of twice distilled water until the final volume reaches of 1000 ml. Then they were placed on the shaker at 25 °C for 24 hours. The obtained extracts were smoothed using Whatman filter paper. At the final stage, the extracts were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 minutes and supernatant were extracted as pure extract and were kept at 4 °C for testing.
Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using ionic gelation method. In the present study, commercial chitosan with medium molecular weight was used. At first, 3 g of chitosan was dissolved in 300 ml of distilled water and placed on a magnetic stirrer at 550 rpm to dissolve completely and evenly at room temperature (with one magnet). To adjust the pH =5, some acetic acid was added. Then a certain amount of Russian knapweed extract was added to it. In the next step, 0.5 g of sodium polyphosphate (TPP) in 50 ml of distilled water was completely dissolved and added drop by drop to the chitosan solution, that was stirring on a magnetic stirrer, and the stirring process continued for 60 minutes. This was repeated for all 3 concentrations of Russian knapweed extract separately. After the reaction time, the final solution was centrifuged for 5 min and after smoothing, the top solution of sediments deposited in the oven was dried for 24 h at 60 °C.
Results: Basic techniques for investigation and determination of nanoparticle properties including: thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) tests. The samples obtained by these tests were analyzed. Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the vibrational frequencies of chemical compounds. Thermal weight measurement analysis method, which is based on weight changes during sample heating, was performed to investigate the difference in thermal stability of the samples in the temperature range of 0-700°C. X-ray diffraction pattern of the samples was performed using Cu-Ka radiation. Surface morphology and particle distribution were also obtained using scanning electron microscopy with accelerator voltage k 15. In Spectrophotometric analysis, the presence of a peak in the range of 700 nm indicates the biological synthesis of these nanoparticles with extract of Russian knapweed. FTIR spectroscopy showed the biomolecules present in the extract and involved in the synthesis, which confirms the process of green synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles. In the FTIR spectrum obtained from chitosan nanoparticles with aqueous extract of Russian knapweed and pure extract of Russian knapweed, the presence of factor groups confirming the existence and presence of effective antioxidant compounds such as phenols and flavonoids in the plant extract is used. Based on this, the participation and involvement of phenolic compounds in the Russian knapweed in the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles is quite clearly observed and understood. The size and morphology of biologically synthesized nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, and it was found that the shape of the nanoparticles produced is approximately spherical with an average size of about 33 to 76 nanometers. One of the main reasons for the difference in the shape and size of the synthesized nanoparticles is the different concentrations of the plant extract used. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis also showed the nanocrystals synthesized by the extract of Russian knapweed.
Conclusion: According to the results, it can be said that the polyphenolic compounds in the Russian knapweed extract were acted reducing agents, and also as a complexing agent synthesize chitosan nanoparticles and make them sustainable. The process of ion reduction and synthesis of nanoparticles are done by primary and secondary metabolites such as antioxidants, flavonoids, flavonoids, isoflavones, anticyanidins, isothiocyanates, carotenoids and polyphenols present in the extract. According to the obtained results, plant extracts have a good compatibility with the environment, so that they can be used for rapid production of chitosan nanoparticles, which is a simple, green and efficient method for the synthesis of nanoparticles at room temperature. It is a reducing and inhibiting agent without the use of any chemicals.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Biochemistry

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