Volume 27 -                   RJMS 2020, 27 - : 37-45 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 1396
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Bagherzadeh R, Moslehi M. Effects of omega 3 and exercise training on inflammation markers in body builders. RJMS 2020; 27 :37-45
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6233-en.html
Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran , Phd.Moslehi@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1602 Views)
Background & Aims: Resistance training is a powerful stimulant for increasing the size of muscle fibers and hypertrophy (1), which is one of the goals of bodybuilding (2). One of the challenges in championship sports is the effect of intense training on the immune system. Exercise and physical activity have positive and negative effects on the immune system, so light to moderate intensity exercise reduces the spread of infection, while intense and prolonged exercise is one of the reasons for the weakening of the immune system (3). But athletes, especially in the championship categories, follow heavy and intense training programs to improve athletic performance and gain the title, which can affect the immune system and health of these people (4). Physical activity may cause events such as the production of free radicals, coagulation and coagulation cascades, as well as inflammation. During inflammation, various mediators are mediated by immune cells, such as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-one beta (IL-1β) (5, 6). Exercise or physical activity has the ability to activate the immune system and thus change the concentration of proinflammatory substances secreted by cytokines. Exercise also leads to muscle damage and inflammatory response, which is characterized by an increase in the concentration of proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6. Changes in the production of these proinflammatory substances after exercise can lead athletes to expose to invasive pathogens (7). Professional athletes need intense training and heavy diets to score points and get better results in competitions, and they may be left with the desired results due to the weakened immune system created during training and competitions. One of the effective supplements to strengthen the immune system is omega-3, which athletes use because of its anti-inflammatory properties and to improve athletic performance (18). Bodybuilding exercises increase muscle workload, contractile periods, increase intramuscular pressure, as well as swelling, increase muscle growth and reduce the percentage of fat (24). Professional bodybuilders may participate in championships due to high intensity training, insufficient rest between training sessions, as well as heavy diets to reduce body fat percentage, to strengthen the immune system and improve their performance of the supplement. They use foods such as omega-3s (25), but there is no documented research on the effectiveness of omega-3s on the immune system in bodybuilding athletes, which indicates the need for the present study. In view of the above, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two weeks of exercise and omega-3 intake on IL-6 and IL-1β in elite bodybuilders.
Methods: In quasi-experimental research, 30 body builder male were randomly selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) omega-3 intake, placebo and control. The exercise program in the present study consisted of two weeks of exercise, which was performed in 5 sessions per week. The training program was designed and controlled by a researcher who, in addition to specializing in sports physiology, had a first-class international coaching degree in bodybuilding. In each training session, different muscle groups were performed using ascending, descending and combined pyramid training systems in 4 to 6 sets with intensities of 30-90% of a maximum repetition of each person; The number of movements was adjusted according to the training system and training load. In the final part of the training, aerobic exercises were performed continuously and with increasing intensities of 65 to 75% of the athletes' reserve heart rate. To avoid possible effects of sports supplements on the results of the study, subjects were banned from taking any supplements or medications for two weeks. Omega-3 and placebo were taken before training sessions in doses of 3.6 mg (2400 mg EPA+1200mg DHA American, Vita Cost). For statistical analysis was used of covariance statistical tests.
Results: At the beginning of the intervention, there was no significant difference between serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1β between the study groups. The results showed a significant increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β in the omega-3 and placebo groups compared to the control group (p< 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between consumption of omega-3 and placebo groups (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the present study, after two weeks of intensive bodybuilding training, a significant increase in IL-1β and IL-6 levels was observed in the training groups with omega 3 and placebo consumption compared to the control group. In the present study, the training protocol included an intensive training program to prepare for bodybuilding competitions. Athletes need to do strenuous exercise to achieve peak fitness. This type of exercise usually causes microscopic damage to muscle cells and inflammation (24), which increases inflammatory cytokines in these individuals (15). In the present study, no significant difference was observed between the two omega-3 and placebo groups. Previous findings (23-21) indicated a decrease in inflammatory cytokines following omega-3 intake, which is inconsistent with the findings of the present study. The reason for this discrepancy may be due to the differences in the characteristics of the subjects in the present study compared to previous studies, because in the present study there were bodybuilding athletes whose exercise increased the level of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines with heavy training and microscopic injuries (15, 29). However, there was no difference between the placebo and omega-3 groups, But IL-6 and IL-1β were increased by 164.55% and 61.88% in the placebo group, respectively. While in the omega-3 consumption group, the increase in IL-6 and IL-1β was 98.45%, and 48.79%, respectively; which indicates the role of omega-3 consumption in reducing inflammation in professional athletes. In general, the findings of the present study showed that two weeks of intensive bodybuilding training increases the cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in elite bodybuilders, which shows the effect of intensive training on stimulating the inflammatory system. But no significant difference was observed between the two omega-3 intervention groups and placebo. Given that these cytokines are related to the immune system, It seems that even omega-3 intake cannot prevent the increase of inflammatory cytokines, and it is possible that the immune system of bodybuilders due to heavy training in the preparation period for competitions and also a heavy diet for muscle cut, and in these athletes increases the risk of disease.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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