Volume 27, Issue 5 (7-2020)                   RJMS 2020, 27(5): 210-219 | Back to browse issues page

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Housini S L, Eizadi M. The effect of 8 weeks TRX training on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in sedentary middle-aged obese men. RJMS 2020; 27 (5) :210-219
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-5958-en.html
Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran , izadimojtaba2006@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (2066 Views)
Background: Epidemiological evidence has supported the increase in oxidative stress in the presence of obesity. Low levels of physical activity and extra calorie intake are considered as the main cause of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Obesity is associated with an increase in oxygen-derived free radicals and a decrease in antioxidants. Overweight and obesity predispose to many diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol and blood triglycerides, arthritis, asthma and certain types of cancer.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the body's antioxidant defense system and the production of pre-oxidants such as free radicals and reactive oxygen species due to the overproduction of free radicals and oxidants such as malondialdehyde, damage to many macromolecules Weakness leads to the body's defense system.
Although hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is not considered a free radical, but it is a component of ROS and has a direct and effective role in creating oxidative stress and free radicals. Along with other stimulants such as obesity, H2O2 is strongly affected by sedentary. In another definition, H2O2 is a non-radical compound that readily produces radicals such as hydroxyl radicals under special conditions, and although it is not able to directly oxidize DNA and lipids, it directly inactivates some enzymes.
The body's antioxidant system includes enzymatic and non-enzymatic agents, the most important of which is glutathione peroxidase (GPX). GPX is a member of the family of celloprotein antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxides in the presence of reduced glutathione, respectively, as electron donors to water and alcohol. In muscle cells, 45% of its activity is in the cytosol and the remaining 55% is in the mitochondria. The uptake of toxic oxygen metabolites under oxidative stress is one of the most prominent features of GPX. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise have been introduced as stimuli for its synthesis, so that endurance training leads to a 20 to 177% increase in GPX in skeletal muscle.
The American Sports Medicine Association has identified intermittent exercise with long periods of time as one of the most important training methods to reduce oxidative stress (14). Among these training methods, TRX or whole body resistance training has recently received a lot of attention, so that this unique training method that uses tools such as two straps and handles, uses body weight as resistance and performs it. It is a prominent feature in any place and environment. Sport science researchers have reported a decrease in body fat levels along with an increase in muscle mass in response to TRX. However, although the antioxidant effects of other aerobic and resistance training methods have been reported in athletes and non-athletes or healthy or sick obese populations, studies showing the effect of response or adaptation of antioxidant and oxidative stress indices to TRX as one of the newest training methods, especially in obese women, is less visible. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of TRX training 3 sessions per week on some oxidative and antioxidant indices such as GPX and H2O2 in inactive obese women.
Methods: For this purpose, 28 sedentary middle-aged obese (30 ≤ BMI ≤ 36) women aged 35-45 years were divided into of TRX (8 weeks, 3days/weekly, n= 14) and control (no training, n = 14) groups by simple accidentally. Fasting levels of GPX activity and H2O2 and anthropometric indices were measured before and 48 hours after lasted exercise session in both groups. Independent t test used to compare baseline levels between the groups and paired t-test to determine inter-group changes of variables.
Results: TRX training led to a significant decrease in anthropometric indices (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in GPX (p=0.023) but H2O2 levels did not change significantly (p=0.627). None of these variables were changed in the control group (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the absence of H2O2 change in the exercise group in response to TRX exercises is the main finding of the present study. In other words, 8 weeks of TRX training with 3 sessions per week increased GPX activity as one of the most prominent antioxidant indicators in obese middle-aged women who previously had a sedentary lifestyle. However, both variables were not significantly changed in the control group. In this regard, although studies that show the response or compatibility of oxidant and antioxidant components to TRX exercises are not visible, but some findings have been reported in response to other training methods, which are sometimes contradictory and inconsistent.
In the present study, despite no change in H2O2, the level of GPX activity in response to TRX training in obese women increased significantly, which alone supports the antioxidant effects of this training method. On the other hand, the insignificant change in H2O2 may be attributed to the small number of samples studied. Because in the present study, the pattern of H2O2 changes indicates a downward but insignificant trend in the TRX group. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of ROSs or antioxidants in exercise can not be summed up in the measurement of serum or plasma levels alone. This is because it is possible for these effects to appear at the cellular or tissue levels of the samples being studied. On the other hand, the increase in GPX activity may be attributed to weight loss and loss of body fat following exercise. Because obesity and high levels of body fat mass are associated with increased ROS and lipid peroxidation due to increased access to fat substrate). Decreased activity of antioxidants including GPX in obese people has been reported as one of the reasons for the increase in oxidative stress. On the other hand, clinical studies have shown the correlation between high levels of ROS or oxidative stress with obesity and have identified the increase in oxidative stress caused by obesity as the cause of more than 100 different diseases. Therefore, the increase in GPX activity in the present study may be rooted in a decrease in body fat mass in response to TRX training. Scientific evidence shows that TRX or whole body resistance training reduces the percentage of body fat. This evidence suggests a reduction in fat mass in response to TRX or resistance training. Despite this evidence, the antioxidant effects of exercise can not be attributed solely to the measurement of GPX or H2O2. Rather, the improvement in antioxidant profile in response to exercise is rooted in a change in other indicators of oxidative or antioxidant stress, such as superoxidase dismutase, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, milio peroxidase, or catalase. On the other hand, the lack of measurement of these indicators is one of the limitations of the present study.
Performing TRX exercises improves the antioxidant profile of obese middle-aged women. In other words, despite the fact that H2O2 did not change, the increase in glutathione peroxidase activity in the present study and other laboratory evidence in this area support the antioxidant effects of TRX exercise in middle-aged obese women. This improvement may be attributed to a reduction in body fat mass in response to TRX training. However, further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms responsible for the effect of exercise on the antioxidant profile.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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