Volume 30, Issue 5 (8-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 30(5): 108-117 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 0
Ethics code: IR.IAU.SARI.REC.1402.243
Clinical trials code: 0

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Nayebzadeh P, Tajalli P, Mohammad Ismaeil E, Ramezani A. The Role of Gender and Birth Order in Cognitive, Physical-Motor, Language, Learning and Social-Behavioral and Emotional Skills of 1-2 Year Old Children in Tehran. RJMS 2023; 30 (5) :108-117
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-8189-en.html
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , P_tajali@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (279 Views)
Background & Aims: Studying the role of gender and birth order in developmental standards has a great role in decisions and judgments about children. The most important period of a child's brain development is the first two years of life, which has a great role on the child's mental, physical, psychological, and social functioning. Recognizing that children's development is holistic is one of the basic principles of using developmental statements in the early years. All-round growth is the recognition of physical, cognitive, linguistic, emotional and social growth, which are interconnected, inseparable and dependent on each other. Gender differences in language and social-emotional skills appear to exist right after birth. For example, newborn boys make fewer rhythmic and early tongue movements during sucking. On the other hand, baby girls respond more to formula with a reflexive "smile" and show greater auditory sensitivity. Differences in later months include sensitivity to pain, responsiveness to mother's vocalizations, and discrimination of emotional expressions. However, even in the early stages of development, differences do not favor one gender group. For example, some studies show that boys show more happiness, look at their mothers for longer, and make more movements to be picked up. Additionally, some studies find no differences in infant eye contact, in contagious crying, or in response to the mother's face. One of the viewpoints related to learning is the viewpoint of behaviorism. In this perspective, learning is examined based on two basic principles of classical and active conditioning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning that is based on creating an association between a stimulus that does not normally cause a reaction and a learning stimulus that causes a specific reaction, and operant conditioning is another type of learning that is based on reinforcing or punishing behavior for increasing or decreasing the probability of its output; However, unlike behaviorists who did not deal with mental processes, cognitivists emphasize the unobservable mental processes that people use to learn and remember new information and skills. to be Among the theories of cognitive learning, we can mention Bandura's social-cognitive learning theory and information processing theory. Based on Bandura's social-cognitive theory, a lot of human learning happens in a social environment. Through observing others, we learn knowledge, rules, skills, strategies, opinions and attitudes, and by observing and using patterns, we learn the usefulness and appropriateness of behaviors. According to this theory, most of our learning is through modeling and observing the behavior of others and observing the consequences of the behavior that others do. According to Bandura's opinion, new behaviors are learned through two types of active learning and observational learning. Active learning allows people to acquire complex behavioral patterns through direct experience, by thinking about the consequences of their behavior and evaluating them, and observational learning, the main element of which is imitation by observing appropriate activities, correctly encoding the event for representation in memory, doing the behavior and having sufficient motivation is facilitated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of gender and birth order in children's cognitive, physical-motor, language, learning and social-behavioral-emotional skills.
Methods: The statistical population included all children aged 1-2 and their parents in Tehran. The sampling method is cluster and matrix and the samples were selected from five geographical regions. The sample size included 500 children aged 1-2 years; 100 children were considered for each area. The data collection tool is a researcher-made tool that uses the developmental standards of several American states, such as the developmental standards of Washington (2012), the developmental standards of Nebraska (2018), and studies conducted in Iran.
Results: The results showed that birth order has a significant role in cognitive skills, emotional-behavioral-social characteristics and language and literacy of girls and boys; But gender did not play a significant role.
Conclusion: To develop leisure time in middle-aged men and women in Iran, with an emphasis on sports activities, the identified strategies should be implemented in iran. According to the results of the present research, it is suggested to help the growth and promotion of the general health of middle-aged people by creating special spaces for sports activities for middle-aged people and holding local festivals of sports leisure activities for middle-aged people. Also, researchers and future studies are suggested to investigate the current and desirable situation of middle-aged sports leisure time and the pathology of elderly sports leisure time in Iran in the form of mixed studies.


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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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