Volume 29, Issue 8 (11-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(8): 8-16 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.PNU.REC.1400.269

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Barzegari A, Amouzad Mahdirejei H, Hanani M, Yaghoubi M S, Delfani hosseiny S N, Salehi A et al . The Effect of a Period of Swimming Exercise on Glucose and Insulin in Mice with Autism. RJMS 2022; 29 (8) :8-16
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7778-en.html
PhD Candidate of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Tehran Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , hassanamouzad@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (591 Views)
Background & Aims: Autism is one of the neurological diseases that lead to changes in hormone levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to the effect of a swimming exercise course on glucose and insulin in mice with autism. Scientific research has shown that people with autism have behavioral disorders including anxiety and depression. These patients are mostly isolated from social activities. The causes of this disease are not fully known, however, research by scientists in the last two decades has shown that accidents or the use of certain chemical drugs during fetal and early life can increase the risk of developing this disease in children. Clinical and animal evidence has shown the relationship between increased inflammation in the brain and autism. However, which brain area is involved in this disease is not completely clear. Although extensive research has been conducted on pharmacological and behavioral treatments, the response to these treatments has been largely unsuccessful. One method that has attracted researchers' attention in recent years is the use of sports protocols from adolescence to adulthood to reduce neurobehavioral disorders in adulthood. In addition, exercise has been confirmed as a factor in lowering inflammatory levels in the body and brain. Also, recent studies have shown that sports activities can reduce behavioral disorders including anxiety and depression, and increase social behaviors. Therefore, in this study, we decided to investigate the therapeutic effects of swimming in an animal model of autism on behavioral disorders, including anxiety, depression, and social behaviors, as well as the level of inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal brain regions, which are involved in these neurological disorders.
Methods: The present study was approved by the code of ethics IR.PNU.REC.1400.269 in the Code of Ethics Commission of Payam Noor University. C57BL6 female and male mice with an approximate age of 80-90 days and a weight of 20-22 grams were maintained under light conditions of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness and a temperature of 23 ± 1 degrees Celsius, with sufficient water and food at their disposal. was placed After two weeks of adaptation to the environment, each male and female animal was placed in a cage for mating, then the next morning the vaginal plaque was checked as an indicator of pregnancy. In order to cause autism disease in mice, the animals were divided into control and autism groups on the 12th day of pregnancy (each group of pregnant mice included 10 heads). In the autism group, pregnant rats received a dose of 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally with sodium valproate. After that, children were allowed to be born. At the age of 21 days, the children were separated from the mother by gender and kept in groups of 5 in each separate cage. On the 28th day after birth (one week after separation from the mother), the juvenile animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 as follows: the control group that does not exercise, the control group that exercises, the autism group that They don't exercise, the autism group who exercise. The animals were subjected to swimming exercise for 8 weeks (56 days) from the age of 28 days to the age of 56 days. The training was done 5 days a week, and in this protocol, the animals rested 2 days a week. The results were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance using SPSS-26 software, and the significance level was considered less than 0.05.
Results: The results of the one-way analysis of variance test showed that there is no significant difference in the weight of mice of different research groups. Also, the results of the one-way analysis of variance showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the level of glucose in the mice of the research groups. The results of Tukey's post hoc test showed that the glucose level in the autism group with exercise has a significant decrease compared to the control group without exercise and also compared to the autism group without exercise (P value is equal to P ≥ 0.000 and P ≥ 0.016 respectively), also the glucose level in the autism group without exercise was significantly lower than in the control group without exercise (P ≥ 0.001). Also, the results of the one-way analysis of variance test showed that there is a statistically significant difference in insulin levels in the mice of the research groups (P<0.001). The results of Tukey's post hoc test showed that the insulin level in the autism group with exercise has a significant increase compared to the control group without exercise and also compared to the autism group without exercise (P value is equal to P ≥ 0.001 and P ≥ 0.000 respectively).
Conclusion: Exercise decreased glucose and insulin in autistic mice, so it is suggested to use the swimming training protocol to improve the physical and hormonal condition of autistic patients. Scientific research has shown that people with autism have behavioral disorders including anxiety and depression. These patients are mostly isolated from social activities. The causes of this disease are not fully known, however, research by scientists in the last two decades has shown that accidents or the use of certain chemical drugs during fetal and early life can increase the risk of developing this disease in children Clinical and animal evidence has shown the relationship between increased inflammation in the brain and autism. However, which brain area is involved in this disease is not completely clear. Although extensive research has been conducted on pharmacological and behavioral treatments, the response to these treatments has been largely unsuccessful. One method that has attracted researchers' attention in recent years is the use of sports protocols from adolescence to adulthood to reduce neurobehavioral disorders in adulthood. In addition, exercise has been confirmed as a factor in lowering inflammatory levels in the body and brain. Also, recent studies have shown that sports activities can reduce behavioral disorders including anxiety and depression, and increase social behaviors. Therefore, in this study, we decided to investigate the therapeutic effects of swimming in an animal model of autism on behavioral disorders, including anxiety, depression, and social behaviors, as well as the level of inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal brain regions, which are involved in these neurological disorders.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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