Volume 29, Issue 10 (12-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(10): 293-304 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 1844820315080201398162289999
Ethics code: IR.IAU.AK.REC.1398.013
Clinical trials code: ندارد

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Arbabian T, Rezaii Shirazi R, Farzaneh Hesari A, Asgharpour H. The Physical Activity Levels, New and Traditional Anthropometry Indices: The Predicting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease. RJMS 2022; 29 (10) :293-304
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7696-en.html
Depertment of Physical Education, Ali Abad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad katoul, Iran , rezaii725@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (621 Views)

Background & Aims: According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases account for approximately 30% of deaths worldwide. Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Excessive obesity plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabete. Currently, body mass index and waist circumference are recommended for classification of overweight and obesity . Increased body mass index and waist circumference have been shown as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease . However, studies have shown that the discriminative capacity of BMI is questionable due to the inability to distinguish between adipose tissue and lean mass. This issue has led to the idea that by combining traditional anthropometric indices (such as height, weight, body mass index or waist circumference), a better physical index can be designed that considers and examines body shape Recently, Body Shape Index (BSI) has been proposed as a new body index. Krakower et al. (2012) reported a significant correlation between body shape index and visceral fat tissue and showed that premature deaths are more related to this index than waist circumference and body mass index. Body Roundness Index (BRI=BRI) is another new index proposed that based on waist circumference and height, can better predict the percentage of body fat and visceral fat compared to the traditional indices of body mass and circumference. Recently, several studies have shown that body circumference index can be used as an index of obesity to determine the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, hyperthermia, cardiovascular disease and diabetes .The purpose of this study was to predict the relationship between physical activity and some new and traditional obesity indicators in women with cardiovascular disease and to determine the power of these indicators in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.
Methods: This descriptive-correlation study was conducted on 334 women with CVD (middle: n=189, elderly: n=145) referring to a heart centers in Mashhad. The inclusion criteria included female patients in the age range of 40 to 75 years, myocardial infarction, heart attack, high blood pressure and cholesterol, and willingness to participate in the research. Cardiovascular disease factors were diagnosed by consulting a specialist doctor and reviewing medical records for each patient. To investigate the relationship between different factors, the study was conducted in different age groups. For this purpose, the subjects were divided into two groups: middle-aged (40-55 years, 189 people) and elderly (60-75 years, 145 people). Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. The convenience sampling method was used. Physical activity level was measured with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The body shape index (BSI), body roundness index (BRI), Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), fat mass percentage (%FM) were measured and calculated. Body shape index was calculated based on height (meters), body mass index and waist circumference (meters) using the formula. Body circumference index is based on height (meters) and waist circumference (meters). First, the irregularity (non-dimensional value) of the body (€) was determined using the formula. Irregularity measures the degree of ovality or roundness and ranges from zero (full circle) to one (vertical line).
Independent t test was used for show difference between middle age and elderly groups. To evaluate the possible correlations between obesity indices, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used. The Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity and the best cut-off point of anthropometric indices.
Results: The results showed that there is no significant difference for physical activity, body mass index, body roundness index, body shape index, waist circumference, waist-to-thigh ratio and body fat percentage between middle-aged and elderly groups. The results of the correlation coefficient showed that in both middle-aged and elderly groups, body roundness index has a positive relationship with waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-thigh ratio and fat mass. In middle-aged people, the level of physical activity had no significant relationship with any of the variables, but in elderly patients, the level of physical activity had a negative relationship with body roundness index and body shape index. In the middle-aged group, the body roundness index had the largest area under the curve, and the body shape indices and waist-to-hip ratio are in the second place with a small difference. In the elderly, the waist circumference had the largest area under the curve and the body roundness index ranked second. The level of physical activity in both groups had the lowest area under the curve. The values ​​of the cut points using the highest sensitivity and the lowest specificity in the middle-aged group for the physical activity level is greater than 984.5, body roundness index is less than 5.41, body shape index is less than 0.0834, waist circumference is less than 89.7, Body mass index less than 26.3, body fat percentage less than 31.8 and waist to hip ratio less than 0.91 and in the elderly group, physical activity level more than 789.7, body roundness index less than 5.8, index Body shape was less than 0.0865, waist circumference was less than 91.5, body mass index was less than 28.03, body fat percentage was less than 30.46 and waist to hip ratio was less than 0.9.
Conclusion: Contrary to the initial hypothesis of the researchers, the research findings showed that the level of physical activity had the least ability to predict the presence of cardiovascular disease. According to the present research, there was a weak relationship between the level of physical activity and obesity indicators. Considering that prospective studies in adults have shown that low physical activity is closely related to the development of cardiovascular disease, however, it may be that if the amount of physical activity is low, its changes are not very reliable and cannot be a good predictor for the factors Cardiovascular risk. The level of physical activity in the present study was average (1135.7 meters/minute/week for the middle-aged group and 916.4 meters/minute/week for the elderly group) and the subjects were divided according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in terms of physical activity. According to Maisen et al.'s study (2011), the activity level is less than 600 met-minutes per week as inactive, between 600-1500 met-minutes per week as semi-active and more than 1500 met-minutes per week as active was considered. Among the possible reasons for the difference in the results of the mentioned studies, we can mention the physical fitness of the subjects, the disease and pathological conditions of the subjects, and gender. Body roundness index was created in order to predict body fat and visceral fat tissue percentage by using waist size in comparison with height, which makes it possible to estimate the body shape as an egg or oval. Body shape index independent of body size (height, weight and body mass index) creates a quantitative scale to estimate body shape. In preliminary studies, researchers have shown that BSI is a better predictor of premature mortality than BMI and WC in the general US population. According to the results of the study, BRI and WC are best indices for predicting the possibility of CVD in patient middle age and elderly women.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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