Volume 29, Issue 7 (10-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(7): 11-22 | Back to browse issues page

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Mousavian S J, Kheiri B, Aligholi M. Designing a Structural Model of Guilt and Shame with Emphasis on Coping Strategies. RJMS 2022; 29 (7) :11-22
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7525-en.html
Associate Professor, Department of Business Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , bahramkheiri@gmail.com
Abstract:   (891 Views)
Background & Aims: In marketing, cognitive abnormality is defined as anxiety that emerges after shopping or making decision through a notable buying that has persuading alternatives (2). For example: consumers who bought an expensive car, when thinks about repurchasing, they likely conclude that alternative option would be a better choice, so he or she came over cognitive abnormalities (3). Abnormalities occurred when consumer have an opposite point of view (4). Cognitive abnormalities might arise after buying, as result something is purchased in comparison the others (5) provided the result was not favorite, consumer might sense psychological distress (6) that be accompanied by senses such as anxiety, unreliability, hesitation and regret (7). Also all humans might experience collection of different emotions daily. Collection of emotions that have significant effects on our relationships by self and the others is called Conscious emotions. To understand the effects of Conscious emotions on different aspects of life is important. During past decade, study and assess Conscious emotions such as shame and guilt has increased (8). Guilt and shame notably impact on people's daily life especially in ethical decision making and repurchasing (9). Shame and guilt feeling are some conscious emotions that occurred after a moral mistake and at individual and communicational levels are particularly practical. Shame and guilt are conscious emotions, because self is assessing in these feelings and are included as moral emotions due to having important role in improvement ethical behavior (10). Moral emotions are such emotions that are defined in relationship by moral affair (11) and have roots on social relations and are based on evaluations and bilateral judgments of self and the others (12) and also regulate ethical behavior and shape psychological signs. From the past, Experts have considered conceptual separation of these two constructs. Shame and guilt feeling often are used by each other, while either have a different meaning and independent structure. Guilt feeling includes Mental preoccupation, regret, but shame feeling is an embarrassed feeling due to a mistake action (13) studying guilt and shame is a significant and practical part of psychology and it is known as conscious emotion. From the point of view of psychology this conscious emotion is found in social relationships and it is increased by concerns about self, the others and performed behaviors. Fear of negative evaluation and self-behaviors are considered for guilt feeling and guilt feeling is considered as a social and ethical emotion and due to response to moral violation, moral behaviors, rules of conducts of interpersonal communication and Personal hygiene will be occurred (14). Shame feeling can be considered as an emotional state that derives of cognitive factors such as documents about self, constant documents, permanent documents and uncontrollable. Such position result to self-blame (because of constant documents, general documents, internal documents for negative events) that can provide anxiety contexts. Shame fundamentally helps to social behavior motivation and try to self-improvement. However, when shame overcome emotion can result to inconsistent results (16, 17). Shame includes defensive reactions such as anger and anger and sadness (10). Emotions have significant role in the field of consumer's ethical making decision. Researches show that the level of consumer's guilt impacts on types of decisions related to consumption such as using of recyclable product, smoking, diet and repurchasing (18). Studies about consumer's misbehavior, and also importance of shame and guilt in determining the level of consumer's moral, highlights deviation understanding. Negative effect of shopping mistake impacts on repurchasing and this feeling should be removed till shopping be continuous. Researches related to this topic is limited and exposed an emptiness. Du ring present years interest to concept of shame and guilt feelings is enhancing. For example, persons such as Yi and Baumgartner specified eight coping strategies that are usable in general concept of shopping, and also considering development of competition and diversification in shopping and products, assessing shame and guilt feeling from consumers' point of view is an important research topic. Studying this type of behavior represent an understanding of normal behavior. In spite of being practical, limited researches pay to assessing different aspects of shame and guilt feeling.. Saintives and Lunardo have investigated how guilt feeling will be moderated by changing amount of guilt feeling and emotional support and how them impacts on consumers. Past studies showed sometimes consumers feel guilt. Psychological literature show how guilt feelings and anxiety engage with emotional support. In this research shame feeling had mediator role on relationship between guilt feeling and consumer behavior's attitude. Also Yi and Baumgartner investigated the interaction effect of guilt and shame feeling on consumer's impulsive buying behavior. Based on psychological studies about guilt and shame, research show that the intensity of shame feeling on social support, consumer's reasonable behavior, regretting, resignation, lack of intellectual belonging and blaming have direct effect. Research's questionnaires were collected from 274 participants. Kabadaei et al's research was performed in Turkish youth by using quantitative method and distributing questionnaires and that states how consumer's feeling, self-controlling and perceived effectiveness impact on consumer's attitudes. This research's objective was an experimental study that direct and indirect effect of different factors on consumer's behavior were evaluated. 172 questionnaires of students were collected. This research show that perceived effectiveness has the most effect on consumer's tendency. Also consumer's guilt feeling has direct and indirect effect on shopping tendency among youth. Baker et al investigated the relationship between guilt feeling and moral judgments in a research titled religiosity, guilt feeling and moral judgments of consumer. This research's objective is recognizing moral and showing their effects on guilt feeling. The results show indirect effect of materialism on consumer's moral judgments and also its direct effect on guilt feeling. Ozhan and Kazancoglu in a research titled "consequences and backgrounds consumer's guilt feeling model" investigates relationships between regret from buying and not buying, violation of norms and hedonism in shopping on consumer's guilt. This topic can be newest in marketing. There is a complicated relationship between aspects of consumer's guilt feeling and reactions of avoidance of that. Results show regretting has the most effect on consumer's guilt feeling. . In Iran, there were not sources and research activities in the field of shame and guilt feelings. This concept that make a revolution in combination marketing and psychology and also consumer's values were hidden. So, research activities will make an insight in the field of consumer's moral values and will provide necessary context for guiding citizenships.
Methods: The present research method is descriptive-survey and the data collection tool is a questionnaire. Its statistical population is the postgraduate students of Islamic Azad University Faculty of Management, Tehran Central Branch, and the statistical sample includes 337 students who were selected by stratified random method. In order to test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was used, and SPSS and PLS software were used to analyze the data.
Results: Data analysis showed that instant shopping has a positive effect on consumer guilt and shame. And this is while the consumer's guilt and shame do not directly affect the intention to buy again. This shows the high power of the strategies considered in the research model to deal with the consumer's sense of guilt and shame in the intention of repurchasing.
Conclusion: The results showed that cognitive abnormalities after shopping affect coping strategies and planning strategies to reduce impulse buying, planning to compensate for financial loss, lack of intellectual belonging, blaming others, justifying, and regretting strategy have a negative effect on repurchase intention. These findings confirm the results of past research. Also, shame-inducing patterns lead to the desire to hide and escape, and guilt-inducing patterns lead to the desire to confess, apologize, and make amends.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Biotechnology

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