Volume 29, Issue 11 (1-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 29(11): 34-46 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 162453994
Ethics code: 162453994
Clinical trials code: 162453994

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Sahebdel S, Zarei A, Esmaeili M R. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Psychological Distress in People with Bulimia Nervosa. RJMS 2023; 29 (11) :34-46
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7152-en.html
Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran , Dr_alizarei@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (930 Views)
Background & Aims: Sometimes referred to as mental methods of measuring quality of life, life satisfaction is a multilevel structure that relates to the overall assessment of life areas such as health, capital, occupation, self-esteem, and interpersonal relationships [2]. Leisure and the way it is spent one of the recent concepts that after the industrialization of societies, the growth of capitalism and the expansion of cities found its true meaning [6]. In order to examine the benefits of leisure, various studies have placed great emphasis on individuals' mental assessments of their leisure time in the literature. This emphasis was more on the concept of perceived freedom in leisure, which was used to measure the performance of tasks (tasks) of people during leisure. Perceived freedom has been one of the most important aspects of understanding leisure behaviors. Self-esteem was another structure that was examined in this study, based on its close relationship with the perception of leisure freedom and life satisfaction [9]. Self-esteem is related to a positive or negative attitude towards oneself and reflects one's feelings of self-worth. This factor seems to be important for a successful and satisfying life, as one of the main characteristics of being good (being healthy) [2]. Also, another variable that has been studied in accordance with the variables of this research is psychological well-being. Reef sees psychological well-being as the pursuit of perfection in the realization of one's true potential. Psychological well-being refers to the quality of life experienced and reflects desirable psychological performance and experience [11]. Exercise and physical activity are extremely valuable tools as one of the ways to spend leisure time, which today is the largest part of the leisure time of millions of people around the world. Rati and Lee (2020) state that psychological well-being has an effect on life satisfaction [18]. Liang et al. (2020) believe that self-esteem has an effect on life satisfaction [19]. But Agiar (2014) in a study examined perceived freedom and leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction among Turkish women and showed that perceived freedom in leisure time did not affect life satisfaction, although psychological, social subscales, Physiologically and aesthetically, leisure satisfaction was significantly associated with participants' life satisfaction [23].
In expressing the necessity of research, it can be said that considering the importance of self-esteem, perceived leisure freedom, psychological well-being in the lives of people, including students, and the effects that these factors can have on people's life satisfaction, the result of this research is It can pave the way for discovering some factors affecting students' life satisfaction and provide a more logical justification for promoting attention to the mentioned factors and indicators among students and in society in general, Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the communication model of perceived freedom in sports leisure, self-esteem, psychological well-being and life satisfaction among students.
Methods: The research was Quantitative method and descriptive in terms of implementation path, survey type based on structural equations. The statistical population of the present study is all physical education and non-physical education students of Azad University located in Tehran in research sciences units; Medical Sciences Branch, Central Tehran Branch, North Tehran Branch, East Tehran Branch, West Tehran Branch and South Tehran Branch, which consisted of 373 people according to Morgan table and unlimited population size based on cluster random sampling method Sample titles were selected from each unit. Reef (1989) Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, Ellis, Peter & Witt (1984), Rosenberg (1965) and Denise (1985) Life Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Pearson correlation coefficient test and structural equations were used to analyze the data using SPSS and AMOS software.
Results: According to the results of Pearson correlation test, there is a significant positive relationship between the variables of perceived freedom in sports leisure, psychological well-being, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Also, based on fitness indicators (GFI, CFI, RMSEA) and other fitness indicators (CFI, NFI, IFI), the communication model of perceived freedom in sports leisure, self-esteem, psychological well-being and life satisfaction has had a favorable fit. The results showed that perceived freedom in sports leisure on psychological well-being and life satisfaction; Self-esteem has a significant positive effect on psychological well-being and life satisfaction and psychological well-being on life satisfaction of physical education students.
Conclusion: According to the research findings, there is a significant positive relationship between perceived freedom in sports leisure and psychological well-being and life satisfaction. The results of the model also showed that perceived freedom in sports leisure has a significant positive effect on psychological well-being and life satisfaction of physical education students. The findings of this study were consistent with the results of Previous research [2, 17, 18, 23, 28]. It could be argued that students who perceived higher levels of freedom identified themselves as more deserving individuals and were able to control what happened before, during, and after participation in their spare time. In contrast, those who perceived lower levels of leisure freedom (with less perception of leisure freedom) were subjected to a learned misery and helplessness that led to a different end of the chain (hierarchy) in White's perception of leisure freedom. Thus, lower levels of perceived freedom were likely to lead to lower levels of leisure participation. This ultimately leads to the loss of a variety of benefits from leisure participation such as positive mental and physical health and greater physiological (mental) health, self-esteem, psychological well-being, happiness and higher social interaction, especially in the case of university students, which are the main objectives of this study. Having a strong will and self-esteem, decision-making power and initiative, creativity and innovation, mental health and mental health has a direct relationship with the amount and manner of self-esteem and self-esteem, which causes a person to have higher life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Based on studies on intrinsic motivation, they propose an autonomous model of well-being. This model assumes that there are three universal psychological needs: independence, competence, and dependence; Satisfaction of these needs is a predictive tool for well-being [31]. It can be said that according to the welfare autonomy model, the effect of self-acceptance, collective feeling and dependence is positively related to self-fulfillment and vitality and life satisfaction of individuals and at the same time, it is negatively related to behavioral problems. For example, students are happier during the day when they engage in activities based on innate beliefs. In addition, moving toward intrinsic goals is positively associated with increased life satisfaction among students. Explaining the results, it can be said that participation in entertainment, recreational and physical leisure activities can have positive effects on the life and psychological characteristics of physical education students such as life satisfaction, self-esteem and psychological well-being. According to the results, the need to increase the level of awareness and attitude and engage in leisure activities along with sports activities can increase life satisfaction and mental well-being of physical education students, which is done by holding training classes and evaluating leisure programs. It can be effective and useful. It is suggested that information about better life satisfaction, self-esteem and mental well-being of physical education students be made public through mass media such as radio, television, magazines, etc. to encourage the public to participate in sports. Provide. Supporting leisure sports activities should be one of the basic principles in a leisure program. One of the limitations of the present study is the lack of standard tools in the field of perceived freedom in sports leisure and also little research on this variable in the country. On the other hand, the present study is limited to all physical education students of Islamic Azad University of Tehran. Therefore, generalization of results should be done with caution. It is suggested that information about the better life satisfaction, self-esteem and psychological well-being of physical education students be made public through mass media such as radio, television, magazines, etc. to encourage the public to participate in sports.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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