Volume 30, Issue 6 (9-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 30(6): 13-28 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: IR.SSRC.REC.1399.128
Ethics code: IR.SSRC.REC.1399.128

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Saebi F, Abednatanzy H, Azarbayjani M, Gholami M. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Royal Jelly on RBP4 and AMPK Gene Expression in Soleus Muscle and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Rats. RJMS 2023; 30 (6) :13-28
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7135-en.html
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , abednazari@gmail.com
Abstract:   (603 Views)
Background & Aims: Type 2 diabetes is the most common endocrine disease that occurs due to glucose intolerance due to imbalance between reserves and insulin demand.RBP4 is one of these adipocytes whose serum concentrations increase in different models of rats with type 2 diabetes and people with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was the interactive effect of High Intensity Exercise Training (HIIT) and n-chromosomal royal jelly on RBP4 and AMPK gene expression in liver hepatocytes and glucose levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. Intense interval training is usually performed with intensities above 90% of the maximum heart rate and short rest periods and a training duration of less than 20 minutes. Royal Jelly is a yellowish white substance secreted by the submandibular glands of worker bees and by the queen bee is consumed throughout its life and the larvae during the growing period. Due to their anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory effects, various drugs are obtained from Royal Jelly. Evidence from studies shows that the possibility of RBP4 and AMPK gene expression in soleus muscle plays an important role in increasing consumption glucose. Therefore, this article intends to report the interactive effect of HIIT and consumption of n-chromosomal royal jelly on glucose regulatory factors.
Methods: The statistical population of the present study consisted of rats. After 20 weeks of high-fat diet, rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg STZ per kg body weight. Mice with fasting glucose between 150 and 400 mg / dL were considered to have type 2 diabetes. Mice were treated in 4 groups: 6-head diabetic control, 8-period periodic training, 7-head Royal Jelly, 8-head Periodic Exercise, and 8-head Royal Jelly training group and training protocol and gel-royal gavage.
The HIIT protocol consisted of eight weeks of aerobic exercise, five sessions per week with a gradual increase in extreme frequency from 22 to 38 meters per minute and a rest period of 16 to 22 meters per minute for 15 to 34 minutes by running on a treadmill. Running time increased from 16 minutes in the first week to 34 minutes in the eighth week. At the end of the training period and 48 hours after the last training session, the experimental training groups and after 12 hours of fasting, the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed by ether anesthetic. Blood samples were collected from the heart. Glucose was measured using an auto-analyzer. Insulin measured by a special kit of Pars Azmoun Company. The insulin resistance index was calculated using the formula and gene expression was also determined by RT-PCR. To describe the data, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare the differences between groups and two-factor analysis of variance and effect size index were used to compare the effect of each of the independent variables. Significance level it was considered p≤0.05.
Results: Mean glucose concentration (mg / dL) in the exercise group compared to the control was significantly reduced (P = 0.005) and in the exercise-royal gel group compared to the royal gel group had no significant difference and had a significant decrease compared to the control in the gel exercise group (P = 0.001). Mean insulin concentration (IUI / ml) in the exercise group was significantly increased compared to the control (P = 0.005) but the royal jelly group had a significant increase compared to the control. In the exercise group, Royal Jelly had a non-significant increase compared to control. The mean insulin resistance index in the exercise group was significantly lower than the control group and Royal jelly (P = 0.044). Data analysis using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance and post hoc test showed that, HIIT and royal jelly resulted in a non-significant decrease in soleus muscle RBP4 gene expression compared to the control group. HIIT and royal jelly increased the expression of AMPK gene in soleus muscle compared to the control group, which was significant in the HIIT group (P = 0.008). Since increasing in glucose consumption muscle tissues, especially in diabetic patients is importance. The findings of the present study revealed that the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in soleus muscle is affected by HIIT and combined with royal jelly. Eight weeks of HIIT alone, in interaction with n-chromosomal royal jelly. The findings of the present study showed that HIIT and royal jelly reduced a non-significant decrease in soleus muscle RBP4 gene expression compared to the control group of type 2 diabetic rats, so decrease in glucose concentration and increased insulin and significantly reduced the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet and decrease RBP4 gene expression in soleus muscle in the HIIT groups.Various mechanisms have been suggested for the effects of RBP4 on the induction of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Serum RBP4 has been shown to be involved in inducing insulin resistance by stimulating the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver and impaired insulin signaling in muscle. In muscle tissue, there is a negative correlation between RBP4 and access to glucose and GLUT4 levels in diabetes people. In other words, increasing the concentration of RBP4 reduces the activity of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and subsequently phosphorylates the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and affects the transfer of GLUT4, which in turn It affects the insulin signaling pathway and reduces insulin-dependent glucose uptake into muscle tissue. Researchers have suggested that reducing and inhibiting RBP4 may be effective in reducing the damage caused by diabetes. For example, a recent study confirmed the beneficial effects of fentertinide (an RBP4 inhibitor) in the treatment of mice with a high-fat diet, so that the results of the above study showed that fentertinide inhibits glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in Prevents liver and muscle and improves glucose production in the liver and glucose metabolism in muscle.
The results also showed that AMPK gene expression increased in the experimental groups compared to the control, which was significantly increased in the intense periodic training group compared to the control (P = 0.008). AMPK has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity after exercise. In their study, Rimko et al. showed that 8 weeks of aerobic exercise increased the AMPK signaling pathway in the muscle tissue of diabetic rats, which was also effective in improving insulin sensitivity. Increased blood glucose intake, which is affected by exercise, especially HIIT, can counteract the negative effects of RBP4. In the study of Aghaei and et al, Induction of diabetes caused a significant increase in RBP4 expression and after 8 weeks of HIIT exercise, its expression decreased significantly compared to control and AMPK gene expression was significantly increased in HIIT exercise group.
Conclusion: HIIT and royal jelly resulted in a non-significant decrease in soleus muscle RBP4 gene expression compared to the control group. HIIT and royal jelly increased the expression of soleus muscle AMPK gene compared to the control group, which was significant in the HIIT group (P = 0.008).
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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