Volume 29, Issue 6 (9-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(6): 105-114 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 0
Ethics code: IR.IAU.M.REC.1401.001
Clinical trials code: 0

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Damiri H, Zare A, Karim Nia A, Sharafzadeh M H. Evaluation of Levels of Speech Disorders in the Agrammatic’s Persian Speakers. RJMS 2022; 29 (6) :105-114
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7052-en.html
Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran, , a86.zare@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (911 Views)
Background & Aims: Chomsky (1981)'s theory of governance and referentiality, which distinguished between superstructure and deep construction, was considered as a candidate for describing syntactic disorders in grammatical aphasia speech. Depth is a surface that contains the lexical features of sentence structures and thetaic relations between these structures. The structure is derived from the depth of motion by kinematic moments. Role nuclei and their projections are of special importance in derivation. Match markers are time and state that are associated with lexical constructs such as verbs and nouns. Role structures such as complement and auxiliary verbs are produced in their original position, the role nuclei. Role nuclei and their identifiers are the landing sites of structures. Which have moved from their position in the depths of construction. Many studies have shown that the omission and replacement of mere adjectives is one of the main signs of grammatical production speech. Linguistic disorders caused by brain damage are categorized as generalized aphasia. Patients with disabilities have different language abilities depending on which area of their brain is damaged. Damage to the broca area usually leads to a disorder that has several symptoms, the first and most obvious of which is poor production. The second characteristic of Broca's aphasia is the regular omission and substitution of sounds, which is called relative phonological aphasia (also called motor aphasia). The third characteristic of Broca's aphasia is a defect in the ability to construct morphological and syntactic patterns. The most common of these symptoms is the loss of most sub-categories, such as prepositions and adjectives, as well as adjectives. Broca's aphasia is also associated with deficiencies in syntactic knowledge. Although patients seem to understand language well as long as they can rely on their knowledge of word meaning and pragmatics, they do not seem to be able to. Use syntactic knowledge in interpreting sentences. As mentioned earlier, this language center not only controls production but also plays a vital role in word formation and sentence construction. The Broca area seems to deal mainly with the structural and organizational aspects of language and is therefore responsible for the production rules governing the creation of sound patterns as well as the morphological and syntactic rules governing the construction of words and groups. Research shows that language is a complex cognitive skill that plays a vital role in human cognition, so it is directly related to other cognitive skills and should not be evaluated alone. In patients with aphasia, disorders in cognitive skills such as attention, memory. they cause disorders in language functions and if left untreated, they can delay the healing process of language disorders. Injury or disorder in the Broca area of the left hemisphere of the brain leads to different levels of speech disorders. The present study focuses on the domain of Inflection; tense and agreement in verbs produced by Persian agrammatic aphasics. Two main objectives are considered in this research. 1. Is the construction of a morphological structure preserved in the speech of grammar? 2- Are the grammatical errors produced in the speech of Boka people (grammars) as a result of a disorder (a disorder) the selection of role categories in the linguistic productions of Persian grammatical individuals by observing the behavior and performance of the verb definition?
Methods: The present study is a field, descriptive and analytical research. First, the researcher prepared a list of Broca aphasia patients to collect the desired data and referred to Neyriz Martyrs Hospital and with the help and assistance of a neurologist, reviewed the patients' medical records and CT scans. He has been performing his tests on the site of the brain lesion for 6 months. However, during these tests, he also faced some problems, including the fact that the number of sick men was higher than that of women. Sometimes patients died during treatment or suffered other serious injuries. Due to the medications they were taking and the special care taken to treat these patients, it was not possible to interview the researcher at any time; Therefore, sometimes the tests were performed in several stages and in a short time. In this research, data analysis is presented in the form of tables and graphs. This study was performed on 6 patients who were referred to Shohada Hospital in Neyriz, Fars province in 2019. The subjects were 35-80 years old, with at least elementary education, monolingual, Persian-speaking and right-handed. Data collected by Persian Aphasia Tests. This issue is analyzed in the theoretical framework of generative grammar, Pollock’s (1989) Split INFL Hypothesis, Friedmann and Grodzinsky’s (1997) Tree Pruning Hypothesis and also Chomsky's Minimalist Program (1992).
Results: The findings suggest that Friedmann and Grodzinsky’s syntactic tree pruning hypothesis (1997) does not have the explanatory adequacy to describe this disorder. Moreover, Persian agrammatic aphasics omit verb inflectional markers while showing no tendency to substitute morphemes. Observation of verb conjugation errors shows that 6 subjects tend to omit the current time and match markers. Cognitive studies have shown that the specific characteristics of each language determine the patterns of elimination and substitution observed in brain-injured patients. Since Persian is also an analytical language and usually by removing a grammatical word, the root of the word can be alone. It is conceivable as a word, so the removal of restricted monosyllables is conceivable and the replacement of one monosyllabic with another is not expected. According to the statistical data of Table 7, substitution errors rarely occur in the speech of prescriptive patients and include only 12% of misstatement errors, while 88% of errors are omission of morphologies. In short it can be stated that the result C. The present tense in Table 7 is a testament to the fact that prescriptive patients follow the rules of well-constructed vocabulary in their language.
Conclusion: In general, patients with Persian dyslexia suffer from speech disorders in various dimensions, which indicates that a cognitive-linguistic method should be developed to improve their speech abilities. The findings of the research can be discussed from different axes. According to the findings of the analysis of the data produced by patients with grammatical dysfunction, grammatical insufficiency was observed in their speech. By reviewing and analyzing the data, we found that adjective morphemes have limited application time and correspondence in their speech, and this finding is consistent with the results of research on the limited use of these morphemes. This study claims that the origin of this disorder Production is associated with limitations of processing capacity. That is, it activates slowly and slowly affects its lexical units. Therefore, it is better to look at grammatical disease as a computational disorder than a conceptual disorder. They face problems. Due to lack of access to syntactic knowledge, patients resort to adaptation as a strategy, thus eliminating the vocabulary units that had a problem processing. In fact, patients call aphasia a processing disorder, ie their ability to link information. Syntactically and affect morphology. Therefore, a cognitive-linguistic method should be used to assess linguistic abilities in grammars.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychiatry

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