Volume 28, Issue 6 (9-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(6): 141-151 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری است
Ethics code: IR.IAU.K.REC.1398.091
Clinical trials code: مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری است

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Shahrokhian Kermani M, Banaeifar A, Arshadi S, Abedi B. The Effect of Resistance Training, Simultaneous Consumption of Licorice Extract and Boldenone on some marker of Testicular Tissue Damage in Male Rats. RJMS 2021; 28 (6) :141-151
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6943-en.html
Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran , Alibanaeifar@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1577 Views)

 
Background & Aims: Boldenone is an androgenic-anabolic steroid with high anabolic and moderate androgenic properties. Although Boldenone has positive effects such as increased skeletal muscle mass (hypertrophy), increased physical function, increased muscle strength and increased production of red blood cells in patients with anemia (4, 5), it has harmful side effects including testicular atrophy. Severe acne, hoarseness, gynecomastia, breast growth and baldness in men (4). In this regard, studies have shown a significant reduction in testicular weight (4) due to the use of Boldenone. Based on the above, researchers are looking for interventions that can prevent the side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids. In this regard, licorice plant is important in the world due to its important medicinal and nutritional compounds in its roots and rhizomes and has been considered by the pharmaceutical, food and even tobacco industries (8). Licorice is used as an analgesic in skin inflammation and to treat spasms, swelling and rheumatism. Anti-cancer properties, the presence of fat-reducing compounds and flavonoids with strong antioxidant activity have also been reported for this plant (15, 16). Now the question is whether licorice affects the markers of testicular tissue damage or not? Another method that has always been considered by researchers to reduce the negative effects of drugs and supplements is the use of exercise. So far, studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between exercise and reduce the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids, including Boldenone, and the positive effects of exercise on sperm production have been shown (17). But what exercise? How severe? And how long it has the greatest impact is a question that has occupied the minds of researchers. However, there is little information about how exercise affects the response of testicular tissue structure when taking Boldenone steroid.
Methods: For the present experimental study, 40 8-week-old male rats weighing 20-220 g were selected and divided into 8 groups of 5, including healthy control (without intervention), resistance training (8 weeks of moderate intensity training), and bulldon (receiving 5). Mg Boldenone per kg body weight once a week), Licorice (500 mg / kg body weight three times a week), Boldenone + Licorice (5 mg Boldenone and 500 mg Licorice) Expression), Boldenone, resistance training (5 mg Boldenone and 8 weeks of moderate intensity training), resistance training + licorice (500 mg of licorice and 8 weeks of moderate intensity training) and resistance training + Boldenone + licorice (5 mg Boldenone, 500 mg licorice and 8 weeks of moderate intensity training) were divided. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests.
Results: The results of analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the mean internal diameter of seminiferous in testicular tissue in different groups (p = 0.0001 and F = 118.8). Tukey post hoc test also showed a significant increase in seminifer internal diameter in the Boldenone alone and Boldenone + resistance training groups compared to the healthy control group (for both p <0.001). While the exercise, exercise + licorice, exercise + Boldenone + licorice (for all groups p <0.001) and Boldenone + licorice (p <0.05) groups were significantly reduced compared to the healthy control group. Compared to the resistance training group, the Boldenone and Boldenone + training groups (for both p <0.001) increased significantly, but the training + licorice group (p <0.01) decreased significantly. Also in comparison with Boldenone group, licorice group (p <0.001), licorice group + Boldenone (p <0.001), Boldenone + training group (p <0.01), Licorice group + training (p <0.001) and group The combination of exercise + Boldenone + licorice (p <0.001) showed a significant decrease in the inner diameter of the seminiferous. Finally, in comparison with the licorice group, the Boldenone + licorice (p <0.05) and resistance training + Boldenone (p <0.001) groups showed a significant increase in the inner diameter of the seminiferous (Figure 1). Another finding of the present study showed that there was a significant difference between the mean outer diameter of the seminiferous tissue in testicular tissue in different groups (p = 0.0001 and F = 118). Also, based on the results of Tukey post hoc test, it was found that the outer diameter of the seminifer decreased compared to the control group in the groups Boldenone (p <0.001), Boldenone + exercise (p <0.05) and the combined group exercise + Boldenone + licorice (p <0.001) Significant and exercise + licorice group (p <0.001) increased significantly. Also, in comparison with Seminifer's outer diameter resistance training group, there was a significant decrease in Boldenone (p <0.001) and combined training + Boldenone + licorice (p <0.001) groups, and in licorice (p <0.05) groups. + Licorice (p <0.001) increased significantly. Finally, in comparison with the Boldenone group, it was found that the outer diameter of the seminiferous increased significantly in the groups of licorice, Boldenone + licorice, Exercise + Boldenone and Exercise + Licorice (Figure 2).
Regarding the diameter and thickness of the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules in testicular tissue after 8 weeks, it was found that there was a significant difference between different groups (p = 0.0001 and F = 15.14). The results of Tukey post hoc test showed that in comparison with the healthy control group, the diameter and thickness of the basement membrane of testicular seminiferous tubules in the resistance training groups (p <0.01), Boldenone (p <0.001), licorice (p <0.05) Boldenone + licorice (p <0.001), Boldenone + exercise (p <0.001) and Exercise + licorice (p <0.05) increased significantly. Also, in comparison with the resistance training group and the Boldenon group alone and the other groups, only the combined group showed a decrease in the diameter and thickness of the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules (p <0.01) (Figure 3).
Conclusion: Various mechanisms have been reported for how exercise works to reduce the effectiveness of Boldenone. In a study conducted by Sadeghi et al. On 30 6-week Wistar series, it was found that 12 weeks of resistance training with Boldenone supplementation increased the expression of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes in testicular tissue ( 25). The enzyme 5-alpha reductase plays an important role in target organs such as the male prostate gland by converting anabolic-androgenic steroids to dihydrotestosterone. This enzyme is produced in many tissues, including the reproductive system, including the testicles and ovaries, in both males and females, and one of its specific substrates is testosterone (26).

Spermatogenesis activity was also affected by licorice extract so that the diameter of seminiferous tubules and lumen decreased and the thickness of cell wall layers of seminiferous tubules under the influence of licorice extract showed an increasing trend. Increasing the thickness of the cell layers of the seminiferous tubules by the effect of licorice extract can affect the reproductive performance and sperm secretion. The decrease in lumen diameter as well as the increase in the thickness of the wall layers of the seminiferous tubules is probably due to the antioxidant effects of licorice cell extract and the reduction of spermatozoon tissue damage.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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