Volume 28, Issue 9 (12-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(9): 157-171 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: IR. KHU. REC1400.74
Ethics code: IR. KHU. REC1400.74
Clinical trials code: .

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Kordi F, Arsham S, Parvinpour S, Lotfi G. The effect of constraint manipulation (non linear method) on the level of intrinsic motivation and skills in girls aged 7 to 9 years. RJMS 2021; 28 (9) :157-171
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6923-en.html
, kordifatemeh409@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1571 Views)
Background & Aims: Motor learning is one of the complex processes that affect many factors in this process. Among the factors influencing this process can be briefly mentioned the type of pedagogy, the type of skill and its complexity, and the psychological and motivational factors of the learner in the learning process. Targeting-Inhibition skills are a dynamic action that requires a close connection between a person's movement and the spatial and temporal constraints exerted by a moving target (e.g., "ball"). Through a process known as perception-action pairing, the "receiver" uses dynamic external information that changes the spatial / temporal properties of the ball (perceptual constants) to schedule and control the receiver's performance. These perceptual constants can be mathematically described as nonlinear algorithms; in this way, information can be extracted to guide the action. Using nonlinear algorithms, these nonlinear algorithms argue that the process of learning is not a continuous linear progression of behavior but a sudden and discontinuous change over time. The learner must consider a nonlinear dynamic system that includes many components that interact to execute a fixed pattern. The operational solution is facilitated by the interaction of individual, environment, and task constraints that form the boundaries of goal-oriented behaviors. In this approach, unlike previous approaches to motor learning, there is no central controller (such as a coach) to determine how a behavior should be performed. Chu et al. (2007) first coined the term "nonlinear pedagogy" so that educators could benefit from these theoretical concepts simultaneously. According to the constraint-led approach, the nonlinear teaching method defends the manipulation of key constraints to form the learner's boundaries and the learner can discover the motor solution. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of linear and nonlinear pedagogy on intrinsic motivation and the success rate of receiving a interceptive skill in girls aged 7 to 9 years in Boroujerd.
Methods: The strategy of this research was quasi-experimental and pre-test-post-test research design and 7-day follow-up period. The present study was also applied research in terms of purpose. Also, the present study was conducted in the field. The statistical population of the present study was 7 to 9 year old girls in Boroujerd. Participants in this study were 45 female students aged 7 to 9 years with normal vision who were selected in an accessible and purposeful manner based on obtaining a minimum score of 20 in the practical test of MABC-2. Based on the pre-test scores, participants were divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 people with linear pedagogy, non-linear pedagogy and control. Measurement tools included a MABC-2 and Ryan (2008) Internal Motivation Questionnaire. The task of this study included the simultaneous throwing and receiving test of MABC-2 test. In this task, participants stand 2 meters from the wall and then throw a tennis ball at the wall and try to catch the rebound. Participants were trained to use only their hands to catch the ball and not to use their chests. Also, participants should not allow the ball to hit the ground. According to the test instructions, the participants threw and received the ball in 10 attempts. Participants were introduced to the objectives of the research and how to score and perform the tests. The present study included pre-test, intervention (practice), post-test, retention and transfer phases. At first, participants practiced throwing and receiving skills 5 times to get acquainted with the task. In the pre-test phase, participants first completed an intrinsic motivation questionnaire, and then participants attempted to throw and receive 10 attempts. In the intervention phase (practice), which lasted for six weeks and 2 sessions per week, the linear and non-linear training groups performed the relevant exercises. It should be noted that during this period, the control group performed their usual and daily activities. In the post-test phase, which was performed exactly after the last training session, in the retention phase, which was performed after seven days of non-training, and in the transfer phase, by increasing the distance between throwing and receiving by half a meter, participants performed 10 tried to throw and receive. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures.
Results: The results of intra group analysis of variance test with repeated measures on the last factor revaled that nonlinear pedagogy (P<0.05) and linear pedagogy (P<0.05) significantly increased participants' receiving scores. The results of Benferoni follow-up test showed that nonlinear pedagogy improved scoring from pre-test to post-test (sig = 0.001), retention (sig = 0.001) and transfer (sig= 0.001). Other results showed that linear pedagogy improved scoring from pre-test to post-test (sig = 0.0001), retention (sig = 0.0001) and transfer (sig= 0.001). Other results showed that the participants of the nonlinear pedagogy group had higher scores in all stages compared to the linear pedagogy group. The results of covariance showed that nonlinear pedagogy had a significant effect on participants 'intrinsic motivation and increased participants' intrinsic motivation.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that linear and non-linear pedagogy improve interceptive skills (receiving) and internal motivation of 7 to 9 year old girls and non-linear pedagogy compared to linear pedagogy further improve receiving skills and intrinsic motivation of girl children. Therefore, according to the results of the present study, educators and specialists in the field of children's sports are recommended to use non-linear pedagogy when their goal is to increase and improve control skills (receiving). However, considering that the present study was conducted among 7- to 9-year-old girls in Boroujerd, therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing the results to other primary schools in this city and other schools in the country.  Although the present study and previous studies in this field provide significant insights into the value of nonlinear pedagogy in understanding perceptual perception, note that these studies are almost exclusively using dynamic systems paradigms and constraint led approaches. Extensive use of neuropsychological or physiological models to determine the extent and depth of this effect is valuable. Therefore, it is suggested that in future research, the effect of nonlinear prdagogy on neural mechanisms, qualitative processes and variability of movements be investigated.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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