Volume 27, Issue 5 (7-2020)                   RJMS 2020, 27(5): 108-118 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: IR.IAU.SARI.REC.1397.011
Ethics code: IR.IAU.SARI.REC.1397.011
Clinical trials code: 0

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Salehi A, Farzanegi P, Abbaszadeh H. The effect of interval and continuous training with resveratrol on the selected oxidative markers of heart tissue in type 2 diabetic rats. RJMS 2020; 27 (5) :108-118
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6245-en.html
Department of Sport Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran , parvin.farzanegi@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1661 Views)
Background: In recent years, the relationship between the complications due to diabetes along with an increase in glucose levels, blood lipid profile, decreased antioxidant defenses and subsequently, an increase in oxidative reactions in the body has been investigated. The results of extensive studies show that increasing the formation of free radicals, as a result of hyperglycemia, plays a important role in the pathogenesis and progression of complications diabetes (1). The combination of using herbal medicines and performing various physical activities to inhibit oxidative reactions has been considered by many researchers, as well. In this regard, the researchers found that Resveratrol, whit chemical formula: trans 3, 4 and 5-trihydroxyethylene, is a natural polyphenol and phytoalexin that protects plants against fungi in nature (10). As animal studies progressed, the effects of Resveratrol on various diseases were investigated, and some researchers reported the prophylactic effects of this chemical on cancer, cardiovascular disease, ischemic injury, and Alzheimer's (10). On the other hand, it is also a factor in improving plasma markers related to type 2 diabetes (11).In adition, botanical studies show that Resveratrol contains important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant elements such as flavonoids and saponins (12). Therefore, the aim of current study was to evaluate the effect of interval and continuous exercise with Resveratrol on selected oxidative indicator in the heart tissue of mice with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: The present study was experimental. For this purpose, 56 male rats (mean age 40 to 50 weeks and weight average 250 to 300 g) were divided into eight groups including: control-healthy, control-diabetes, diabetes-saline, diabetes-supplement, diabetes-continuse, diabetes-interval, diabetes -continuous-supplement, diabetes-interval-supplement. Rats became diabetic by injecting a single dose of 50 ml / kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Continuous training consisted of 8 weeks, five sessions per week, which started with a speed of 15 meters per minute and a duration of 5 minutes, and got to 28 meters per minute, finally. Interval training included 10 sets of 1-minute activity with an intensity of 50% and 2 minutes of rest between sets. Resveratrol was injected intraperitoneally into the supplement group at a dose of 20 ml / kg and with daily program. The rats were slaughtered 48 hours after the last training session, and then their heart muscle tissue was removed and transferred to the laboratory for measuring the desired indicators.
Results: One-way analysis of variance related to Catalase levels demonstrated a significant difference between the groups (p<0.001). The report of Tukey's post hoc test was as follows: Significant difference among healthy-control group with control-diabetes (p=0.001) and diabetes-saline (p=0.001) groups, diabetes-control group with continuous-diabetes (P = 0.020) groups, Diabetes-continuous-supplement (p=0.004) and diabetes-interval-supplement (p=0.043), diabetic saline group with groups of continuous-diabetes (p=0.014), diabetes-continuous-supplement (p=0.003) and diabetes-interval-supplement (p=0.030). The assessment of intergroup changes of data related to MDA variable also showed a significant difference among groups (p<0.001). Tukey post hoc test indicated a considerable difference among healthy control with control – diabetes groups (p=0.001) and diabetes-saline (p=0.001), diabetes control with continuous-diabetes groups (p=0.020), diabetes- continuous -supplement (p=0.004) and diabetes-interval-supplement (p=0.043), saline group with continuous diabetes (p=0.001), interval diabetes (p=0.021), diabetes-continuous- supplement (p=0.001) and diabetes-interval - supplement (p=0.006). Tukey post hoc test reported there is a significant difference in SOD among healthy-control group with control-diabetes (p=0.001), diabetes-saline (p=0.001) and supplement-diabetes (p=0.046) groups, diabetes control group with continuous-diabetes groups (p=0.010), diabetes-Continuous-Supplement (p=0.002) and diabetes-interval-Supplement groups (p=0.033), saline diabetes group with continuous diabetes group (p=0.015), diabetes-Continuous-Supplement (p=0.003) and diabetes-interval-Supplement groups (p=0.049). Finally, Tukey post hoc test showed that insulin levels in the study groups increased significantly (p=0.001) and glucose levels decreased significantly (p=0.001) compared to the control-diabetes and diabetes-saline groups.
Discussion: The results of the present study showed that eight weeks of interval and continuous training can decrease blood sugar levels and increase insulin levels along with increasing SOD and Catalase levels and decreasing MDA levels in the heart tissue of diabetic rats. SOD exerts its function when the intensity of training is such that it does not require high excretion of hydrogen peroxide, howeverat high training intensities the release of Catalase is stimulated (23). The past evidence has shown that increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide prevents the function of insulin in glucose transport. Hydrogen peroxide, as well as other exercise-generated free radicals, regulate several cellular functions and act as a secondary messenger; they, also, activate factors sensitive to hydrogen products such as AP-1 and NF-κB. The combination of these two factors and the other factors sensitive to hydrogen products can determine the release of the type of antioxidants (24). In line with this theory, a study reported that the expression of SOD and catalase antioxidants is inhibited by the use of a specific inhibitor NF-κB (25).  Besides, the increase in VO2max after a period of aerobic exercise is another reason for the improvement in antioxidant indices. The assessment of effect of the training intensity and duration on changes in antioxidant indices, especially SOD and catalase showes the amount of oxygen consumption during exercise is one of the reasons for the difference in the effects of different exercises (23). In high-intensity interval training, the production of oxidative anions increases, and at low-intensities, oxidation anions are neutralized by the greater release of antioxidants (26). Regarding the positive effects of this type of exercise in reducing lipid peroxidation in diabetics, a research has been done that indicates a decrease in MDA levels following exercise. It has been suggested that at low training intensities, increased SOD production may cause MDA uptake, and at high training intensities through GPX production, the antioxidant system is activated (27). In the present study, Resveratrol intake decreased blood glucose levels and increased insulin levels in rats with type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that Resveratrol can help treat diabetes by lowering blood glucose levels, protecting the beta cells of the of Langerhans island, and improving insulin function.It has been shown Resveratrol increases the rate of glucose reabsorption, even in the absence of insulin, by increasing the expression of genes involved in glucose transporters in plasma membranes such as GLUT4, by various cells derived from diabetic rats (28). These results suggest that Resveratrol and exercise can strengthen the heart tissue's antioxidant defense system against oxidative stress.
Conclusion: In general, the results of the present study showed that exercise by lowering blood glucose and increasing insulin levels in diabetic rats causes increasing of the levels of SOD and catalase, as antioxidant enzymes and decreasin of the levels of MDA in the heart tissue of diabetic rats as an oxidative enzyme. These positive changes, when it comes to Resveratrol consumption was higher.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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