Volume 27, Issue 5 (7-2020)                   RJMS 2020, 27(5): 98-107 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 98-4-30-17490
Ethics code: IR.IUMS.REC.1398.1327

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Golahdooz M, Tabibzadeh, Taherizadeh M, Laali A, Khoonsari M, Ajdarkosh H, et al . A review on Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2): Control and Prevention. RJMS 2020; 27 (5) :98-107
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6150-en.html
Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Virology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , mohamad.karbalai@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (10285 Views)
Background: In December 2019, an acute respiratory illness with symptoms of pneumonia broke out in Wuhan, China, caused by a new coronavirus called SARS COV2. This highly contagious disease has been able to infect many people in most parts of the world in a short period of time. This situation continued to become an international threat (1, 2). The causative of this acute respiratory illness identified as a new type of coronaviruses called COVID-19 by WHO, and there is currently no specific treatment or vaccine. This disease has high transmission rate and at the beginning of the disease has symptoms such as fever, fatigue and cold-like symptoms and will gradually cause respiratory problems and sometimes progress rapidly which it can lead to death. Currently, due to the lack of a specific treatment, the best way to overcome the disease is to control and preventing of new cases (2, 3). The number of cases and death rates in some countries, including Iran, the United States, China, Italy, and Germany, is shown in Figure 1. Reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding the spread of the virus as of 30th April 2020 shows 3090445 infected and 217769 deaths worldwide. In addition, in Iran, the disease has affected 93,657 people so far and 5957 deaths, which shows the importance of this issue and the importance of preventive measures (4). In this review, considering the necessity of using preventive measures to control the disease, first the characteristics of the virus and the disease are discussed and then the methods of prevention and control of the disease and China's experiences in this field are examined.
Methods: In this review, the aim was to disease prevention and control methods and China's experiences in this field. For these purposes, keywords such as coronavirus, novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, acute respiratory syndrome, 2019-nCoV, prevention and control were searched in popular databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus. Databases related to COVID-19 to access new articles have also been used by some of the top journals in the field, including JAMA, Lancet, Cell, Nature, BMJ and medRxiv.
Results: Coronaviruses history: Coronavirus is a single-stranded RNA virus with a positive sense and contains an enolope coat which belongs to the coronaviridae family and the order nidoviral (1). These viruses can cause infections in humans and a wide range of animals. The coronavirus family has 4 subfamilies Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta. Alpha and beta belong to mammals and especially bats and gamma and delta belong to pigs and birds. Among the 7 genera of coronaviruses that can infect humans, the beta subtype causes serious and deadly disease in humans, while the alpha type causes a mild and usually asymptomatic infections (2). The coronavirus was first isolated from the respiratory secretions of a cold patient by Tyrell and Bynoe in the 1960s. In 2002, the virus caused Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China and caused a contagious respiratory illness. About 10 years later, another disease called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), which was caused by a Coronavirus, spread to Middle Eastern countries (3, 5). In December 2019, another acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 broke out in Wuhan, China. The disease spread rapidly in the cities of China and other countries. The disease continued to worsen, with the World Health Organization (WHO) declaring an international state of emergency in connection with the disease on January 30, 2020, and on February 12, 2020, renaming the new coronavirus disease Cronavirus 2019, or COVID-19. (6).
Pathogenicity and etiology: Phylogenetic studies and data review so far suggest that the probable host of this virus is the bat. The virus was transmitted to humans by ant-eaters, and the infection may have spread to the seafood market and transmitted from person to person (6).
Bioinformatics studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the beta-coronavirus group and the genome of this virus is at least 70% similar to the SARS-CoV genome. The new coronavirus has four major structural proteins on its capsid. One of these proteins is the Spike protein, which binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE-2) and the virus enters its genome into the host cell and then begins to amplify its RNA (1, 6). Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 virus has undergone many changes compared to SARS-CoV virus. Both of these viruses target the ACE-2 receptor. Reports have shown that SARS-CoV-2 binds to this receptor with a much higher affinity than SARS-CoV, so the spread of the virus will be faster (6, 7).
Diagnosis and clinical signs: The initial diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical signs as well as the patient's history, for example, such as traveling to infected areas or being in contact with infected patients (8). Clinical signs of the disease are often non-specific symptoms such as fever, cough, fatigue and myalgia. In some patients, symptoms such as headache or hemoptysis are also observed. Patients may experience nausea and diarrhea at the onset of the disease. Fever is an important sign of the disease, but it is not a definite and specific symptom. Symptoms are more severe in people with underlying diseases and the elderly and can cause severe damage (9). The incubation period of the disease is 3 to 14 days. The patient develops shortness of breath after the onset of the disease and in severe cases can quickly cause dysfunction of some organs. Symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, acute heart and kidney damage, blood clotting disorders, and even death are some of the symptoms that may occur in a patient (10).
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Type of Study: review article | Subject: Microbiology

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