Volume 27, Issue 7 (10-2020)                   RJMS 2020, 27(7): 25-39 | Back to browse issues page

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Samiei S, Pourbabaki R, Khadem M, alefi M, Sadeghi yarandi M, Shahtaheri S J. Antioxidant and protective effects of plant extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney: A review. RJMS 2020; 27 (7) :25-39
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6002-en.html
Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , shahtaheri@tums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2643 Views)
Background: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture around the world. Among the most widely used pesticides are Pyrethroids. Pyrethroids are synthetically derived from the pyrethrins and are naturally derived from the plant Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Synthetic pyrethroids have high insecticidal power as well as low toxicity to birds and mammals. Deltamethrin is one of the most commonly used Pyrethroid around the world. This toxin is one of the world-famous insecticides to protect agricultural products, vegetables and fruits against insects and pests. Along with the global spread and use of pyrethroids, their contamination and toxicity has become a problem. Since the use of organophosphate insecticides has been banned, the use of pyrethroids has increased. Human exposure to pesticides occurs occupationally through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion, and in the environment through contaminated food. Due to the nature of lipophilicity and the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides such as deltamethrin, these pesticides accumulate in tissue, food and the environment and cause adverse effects on human health. Initially, it was thought that deltamethrin has the lowest toxicity in mammals, although number of studies have reported that deltamethrin causes severe toxicity in mammalian and non-mammalian organs. Oxidative stress is one of the most deltamethrin toxicity mechanisms. Many studies have shown that pyrethroids are rapidly metabolized in mammals and cause liver, kidney and brain damage through oxidative stress. According to many studies, it has been shown that the liver, due to its role, is the main source of accumulation of high concentrations of deltamethrin metabolites. Deltamethrin has been shown to cause cell death and the production of reactive oxygen species in major liver cells . Also the kidney plays a very important role in regulating homeostasis of the body and removing foreign matter (including pesticides) from the body. Therefore, chronic and acute kidney damages are considered a significant risk to the community. Because of the metabolites derived from deltamethrin play an important role in the development of deltamethrin toxicity, the metabolism of deltamethrin and its metabolites is an important issue. The major metabolites of deltamethrin include 2 ′, 4′- and 5-OH-deltamethrin, the trans-methyl group and the ester separation metabolite which have been identified through radiocarbon analysis within a living organism. Reports from previous studies indicate that the metabolites 2′-OH-deltamethrin and 4′-OH-deltamethrin from deltamethrin are more toxic than deltamethrin in human stem cells. The body has various mechanisms to deal with the damage caused by free radicals. The main mechanism of the body in this regard is the antioxidant defense system. The term antioxidant refers to any substance that delays or prevents oxidative damage to target molecules. Antioxidant status of the body is related to the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase. Many studies have reported that deltamethrin directly causes oxidative stress by upsetting the oxidative balance and antioxidant status of the body.
Medicinal plants have been shown to play an important role in protecting people's health against the potential risk from chemicals such as pesticides .Natural plant extracts provide better antioxidant activity than synthetic uses for food, cosmetics and medicine. The use of synthetic antioxidants has declined due to the increased risk of carcinogenesis and the lack of consumer acceptance of synthetic food additives. Improving the antioxidant system through treatment with natural antioxidants can be effective in preventing damage. The purpose of this review is to investigate the protective effect of different plant extracts against the oxidative stress associated with deltamethrin in the liver and kidney tissues.
Methods: the bibliographic databases such as PubMed – Google scholar – Web of science – Scopus were used to find articles focusing on the effect of antioxidant compounds on deltamethrin toxin. The keywords Deltamethrin, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant, Polyphenol, Liver, Kidney were used to search these bibliographic databases. The search was conducted among articles published between 1980 and 2019 articles such as letters to the editor, conference papers, and reports were excluded. Then, the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the review process, screening and elimination of duplicate and irrelevant information were performed. In addition, data retrieval was performed and after extracting the full text of articles, data were extracted. In this study, initially, the various antioxidants used to reduce and neutralize oxidative stress caused by deltamethrin are briefly reviewed and then the effect of plant antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress caused by deltamethrin in liver and kidney tissues is investigated.
Results: In the initial searches, all articles related to the subject under review were collected. Based on the criteria, completely related articles were finally included in this review study. The search was conducted among articles published between 1980 and 2019. According to studies on the extracts of various plants, it seems that the extracts of plants such as garlic, Trigonella foenum graecum, Globularia alypum, Amaranthus spinosus as well as olive oil and Artemisia campestris oil have protective effects against toxicity and oxidative stress caused by deltamethrin in the kidneys and liver. Ingredients of plant extracts such as Ocimum basilicum, Oat oil, Moringa Tea and turmeric improve and reduce the toxic effects of deltamethrin in the liver and kidneys. These effects are due to the presence of sources rich of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of these plants.
Conclusion: Based on the studies on plants extract, they are able to reduce the oxidative stress level and restore the damages caused by deltamethrin due to their antioxidant properties and the content of polyphenolic compounds.
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Type of Study: review article | Subject: Pharmacy

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