Volume 28, Issue 4 (7-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(4): 46-56 | Back to browse issues page

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Bayat M, Jabbari S, Soraya Tayfeh Dallali K, Atadokht A. The role of loneliness, educational exhaustion and sleeping quality in predicting smoking tendency in students. RJMS 2021; 28 (4) :46-56
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-5968-en.html
University of Mohaghegh Ardebili, Ardebil, Iran , jabbary13@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1613 Views)
Background & Aims: The use of smoking is considered as an important and widespread health problem in various sectors, including students in other parts of the world. Smoking, as one of the greatest threats to human health, causes the worst biological and psychosocial catastrophes and is one of the deadliest factors that increase the overall disease in the world, especially in relation to possible disease. Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancer and seizures have been reported (1). Of the world's 1.1 smokers, 80% are in low- and middle-income communities (2). In the study, 7.28 causes smoking in the age range of 18 to 24 years, which is the majority of students in the same age range (3). Findings of this study showed that 10.9% of students are smokers, 1.9% are women and 15.45% are men(4). Numerous factors have been investigated as possible causes of students' tendency to smoke; In the study of the existence of problems and incompatibilities with family members, especially spouses and parents, and increasing relationships outside the family, including friends, or feelings of loneliness increases the tendency to smoke (5). The feeling of loneliness is a common experienceamong all human beings that almost every person has experienced and experienc) 6).
Feeling lonely is a person's mental assessment of the situation in which he or she finds himself or herself, so that he or she will not feel as intimate in his or her friendly and intimate relationships as he or she would like. In other words, the feeling of loneliness can be considered as perceived social loneliness and not necessarily objective social loneliness. Feeling lonely as a threat to mental health (7); Increases stress and anxiety, dropping out of school, depression, shyness, low self-esteem, increases the risk of suicide and high-risk behaviors such as smoking and substance abuse in adolescents (5).
Another factor that seems to be the tendency to smoke is academic burnout. Academic burnout in students means feeling tired in doing homework and studying materials, having a pessimistic attitude towards education and feeling inadequate for education (10)
Burnout also occurs when a person experiences stress for a long period of time. The results of some studies indicate that academic burnout in students leads to despair and apathy (11). It seems that academic stressors provide the ground for students' tendency to smoke by creating grounds for emotional fatigue and feelings of academic inefficiency in students (12). Little research has been done on the relationship between the variables of academic burnout and the tendency to smoke. In studies of burnout, there was a positive correlation with personality traits of neuroticism and agreement and a negative correlation with personality traits of extroversion and openness, and no significant correlation was reported between conscience and burnout (13). . Research has shown that academic failure is a predictor of drug addiction (14). In a study, they found that drug use has negative effects on students' academic achievement (15).
Another variable that can be related to smoking tendency is sleep quality. Sleep quality refers to mental indicators of how you experience sleep, such as sleep satisfaction (16). Some studies on the young population have reported a higher prevalence of sleep problems in the sleep quality of the young population (17). The student population is a group that is particularly affected by sleep disorders (18) and sleep problems in this group are estimated to be 2 to 5 times the general population. They usually go to bed later, wake up later, and experience more boredom and fewer hours of sleep (19). They experience most of the conditions such as insomnia and insomnia, extreme fatigue, irritability and sensitivity, forgetfulness and neglect, difficulty concentrating and attention, physical complaints and personality-related disorders (20); It is clear that sleep-related problems and their diagnosis are an unknown public health problem among students (21).
Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of loneliness, burnout and sleep quality in predicting smoking tendency in students.
Methods: The present study was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population of this study consisted of all students of Mohaghegh Ardabili University in the academic year 1397-98. Among them, 181 people were selected using available sampling method and to collect data from the questionnaire on smoking attitude (this questionnaire includes a Likert scale to measure the attitude to smoking, which in a total of 32 items with The reliability coefficient is 0.871 in three cognitive dimensions of 9 items with a reliability coefficient of 0.739, the emotional dimension of 11 items with a reliability coefficient of 0.825 and the behavioral dimension of 12 items with a reliability coefficient of 0.876 (27) Ditomasu loneliness and Colleagues (this scale has 14 questions and its purpose is to assess the level of social and emotional loneliness of individuals (romantic loneliness, family loneliness, social loneliness). The scoring method is based on a 5-point Likert scale that respondents agree with. Or express their opposition to these questions on a scale of 5 options from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1) In this questionnaire, except for question 14, all other questions are scored in reverse Cronbach's alpha coefficient was also used for its reliability and the value of this coefficient for the dimensions of this questionnaire is as follows: romantic loneliness 0.92, family loneliness 0.84, community loneliness 0.78 (28), Practical burnout (This is a modified questionnaire of the general burnout scale, which has been modified for use in student samples. This questionnaire has a total of 15 questions and includes three subscales. Emotional fatigue is measured by 5 questions. Doubt and pessimism through 4 questions examined, academic self-efficacy is measured by 6 questions. All questions are scored in a 7-point continuum from never (0) to always (6). Cronbach's alpha for the dimensions of this questionnaire is as follows; Emotional fatigue 0.89; Doubt and pessimism 0.84; Academic self-efficacy (0.29) and Petersburg quality of sleep (this questionnaire measures seven factors of mental quality, delay in falling asleep, duration of sleep, useful sleep, sleep disorders, use of sleeping pills and daily dysfunction, and It consists of 18 items.The subjects answer a range of answers from zero to 3. The total score of the index also ranges from 0 to 21 and high scores indicate poor sleep quality and a score above 5 indicates significant sleep disturbance. Validity of 86.5 and reliability of 89.6 were reported (30) and statistical methods of correlation coefficient and multiple regression on SPSS 22 software were used for data analysis.
Results: The results showed that the tendency to smoke with a total score of feeling lonely (R= 0.35, P= 0.01), burnout (R= 0.17, P= 0.05), sleep quality. (R= 0.15, P= 0.05) There is a positive and significant relationship. The regression results also showed that the combination of sleep quality, burnout and loneliness predicts 12% of the variance of smoking tendency scores. Also, the feeling of loneliness is the only variable that alone predicts the tendency to smoke.
Conclusion: According to the results, loneliness, burnout and sleep quality have important role  in students' tendency to smoke. By providing counseling, workshops, and intervention programs to reduce these factors to prevent smoking in students can be helpful.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Pathology

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