Volume 27, Issue 5 (7-2020)                   RJMS 2020, 27(5): 119-130 | Back to browse issues page

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Khodaee F, Gholami M, Nikbakht H, Babaee-Beigi M A, Ebrahim K. Effect of various type of exercise on serum lipid profile in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. RJMS 2020; 27 (5) :119-130
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-5940-en.html
Department of Exercise Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , : M.gholami@srbiau.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1902 Views)
Background: Cognitive impairment is a common progressive disease in the elderly and is one of the worldwide leading causes of their disability. What makes it worse that there are currently no treatments to reverse cognitive impairment. Therefore, early intervention would be the best issue to prevent cognitive impairment. Moreover, early detection of asymptomatic cognitive impairment can prevent Alzheimer's disease. Improvement in cognitive impairment could be related to the amount of physical activity. Recently, the effects of serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, have been studied on cognitive impairment in the elderly. The results of these researches on how lipid profile levels can affect cognitive function have been controversial. On the other hand, the effects of various types of exercise, including the intensity and duration of these exercises on serum lipid profile and also its relationship with cognitive function in the elderly are unknown. Furthermore, most studies are focused on aerobic exercise and hence investigation on the effect of various types of exercise, including resistance and combination exercises on serum lipid profiles and cognitive status, and the relationship between them in the elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment have been neglected so far. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different types of exercise, and not only aerobic exercise, on serum lipid profile in one hand, and also its relationship with cognitive function in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment on the other hand.
Methods: The present study is a pilot study with a small population to be effective in future investigations with more subjects and longer duration. For this study, thirty elderly (men and women) patients in the age range of 50 to 70 years old which diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment were selected from the 1223 patients who referred to the Cardiovascular clinic of Imam Reza subspecialty Clinic which is under supervision of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, as the study population. In selecting this population, in addition to mild cognitive impairment, three other parameters also were considered for the research samples. First, they should not have been regularly exercising for past six months before the start of the study. Second, they should not have any respiratory or cardiac disease; Finally, in a case that they have had surgery, at least 6 months must be passed since it. The samples were randomly divided into three groups: aerobic exercise group (n = 10), resistance exercise group (n = 10) and combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise group (n = 10). Twelve weeks of the resistance, aerobic and combined exercise programs consisted of 90-minute sessions in length, three days per week with moderate intensity for each mentioned group. In the present study, exercise programs were designed according to the physical condition of the subjects and based on the recommended physical activity instructions for the elderly. Evaluations including Lipid profiles levels and the cognitive performance of the samples were made at baseline and at the end of the twelfth week. Lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were tested in the laboratory of Shiraz Hafez Hospital which is under the auspices of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, using an auto-analyzer and Pars Azmoon kits (made in Iran). Also, the cognitive performance of the samples was assessed by a short mental status test, which includes a cognitive status questionnaire by Folstein et al. The Shapiro Wilk test was used to found the normality of distribution and also knowing that whether parametric tests could be used or not. The results reported as mean and standard deviation and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to determine the differences between variables. The paired t-tests were performed to detect differences between time points (pre and post). Also, in order to understand the relationship between the variables, the Pearson’s single correlation test was used and statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) ver.22 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. To do so, the differences of all variables between groups, their relationship, and changes between pre-test and post-test were evaluated.
Results: The results showed that except for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol marker, which was significantly reduced in the resistance group, in other serum lipid profiles, there was no significant difference observed between the groups results after three months of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise. However, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the aerobic and combined groups and increased in the resistance group, which none of them were significant. Also, after three months of exercise, high-density lipoprotein decreased in the aerobic group and on the other hand increased in the combination and resistance groups. Therefore, in the resistance group, despite the increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a low extent, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly. Hence, resistance exercise is able to optimally reduce the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. On the other hand, cognitive function in all the three groups increased significantly after 12 weeks (p≤ 0.05). Finally, it should be mentioned that despite the simultaneous improvement of some of the serum lipid profiles and cognitive function, no significant relationship in the elderly was found between lipid profiles and cognitive function.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the resistance and the aerobic exercise are able to improve one or two serum lipid profiles in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment; But, the combined exercise improves all serum lipid profile markers, which (should be mentioned) was much less effective than other two types of exercise. Overall, it seems that the resistance exercise can improve the serum lipid profile in the elderly more effectively. On the other hand, the results indicate that the aerobic, resistance, and combination exercises are able to improve cognitive function in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment. However, more comprehensive studies with larger sample sizes should be done in this regard.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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