Volume 26, Issue 8 (11-2019)                   RJMS 2019, 26(8): 42-55 | Back to browse issues page

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Sahraei S S, Kalhor N, Sheykhhasan M. Application of scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering: a review paper. RJMS 2019; 26 (8) :42-55
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-5591-en.html
PhD Student, Department of Stem Cell, the Academic Centre for Education, Qom Branch, Qom, Iran , m.sheykhhasan@acecr.ac.ir
Abstract:   (4175 Views)
The avascular nature of cartilage tissue has posed a clinical challenge for replacement, repair, and reconstruction of damaged cartilage. Injuries to cartilage and osteochondral tissues can be due to osteoarthritis, sports, aggressive cancers, and repetitive stresses and inflammation on wearing tissue. Due to its limited capacity for regeneration or repair, there is a need for suitable material systems which can recapitulate the function of the native osteochondral tissue physically, mechanically, histologically, and biologically. One of the most important alternative methods introduced as an effective solution in this field is the Tissue Engineering (TE) strategy. The main goals of orthopedic tissue and medical engineering are the development of biological alternatives to repair, maintain or improve the damaged tissue and function of the cartilage organs. Three general components are involved in tissue engineering: (1) reparative cells that can form a functional matrix, (2) an appropriate biomaterial as scaffold for transplantation and support, and (3) growth factors, and cytokines that will support and choreograph formation of the desired tissue. TE scaffolds are designed to provide a 3D environment to support and direct cellular processes in their migration, proliferation, and differentiation toward functional tissue while promote angiogenesis in the in vivo implant of scaffold. The selection of bio-scaffolds for cartilage engineering requires excellent mechanical properties to support cellular functions, biocompatibility, capability of waste and nutrient transport, and sufficient structural integrity for joint reconstruction. Both natural and synthetic materials have been applied as cartilage tissue engineering biomaterial as scaffolds in a variety of forms, including fibrous structures, porous sponges, woven or non-woven meshes, and hydrogels. In recent decades, nanomaterial science has introduced new methods for improving and fortifying TE scaffolds, and lies on the forefront of cutting-edge TE strategies. These nanomaterials enable unique properties directly correlated to their sub-micron dimensionality including structural and cellular advantages. In this review article, it has been attempted to examine, in addition to a glimpse into cartilage tissue engineering, research studies and clinical trials in this area. This review article aims to provide a detailed overview of osteochondral regeneration and repair using TE strategies with a focus on research studies and clinical trials in this area.
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Type of Study: review article | Subject: Biology

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