Volume 28, Issue 10 (12-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(10): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: IR.UT.SPORT.REC.1399.129
Ethics code: IR.UT.SPORT.REC.1399.129
Clinical trials code: IR.UT.SPORT.REC.1399.129

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Souri P, Sajjadi S H, Nikaeen Z, Haji Anzahaei Z. Identify women's perceptions of barriers to career advancement based on psychological and health components. RJMS. 2021; 28 (10)
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7085-en.html
Centeral Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University , hamidsadjadi@gmail.com
Abstract:   (97 Views)
Background & Aims: Profession and occupation is one of the important and socially influential aspects of peoplechr('39')s health that it is important to address. Occupational factors affecting health can cause job fatigue of the employed person, which in turn can have negative effects on other areas of life, including social, personal and family. Fatigue and its injuries can also cause the analysis of physical and mental strength of people; because the work environment is composed of physical, psychological and social stimuli, each of these factors can reduce the mental health of the employed person, therefore, the health of women as an active force has a direct impact on the development of the country. Therefore, addressing the issue of womenchr('39')s work and its relationship with mental health and well-being is inevitable. On the other hand, as we know, in addition to medical interventions, health depends on socio-economic factors such as type of job and occupational groups.The aim of this study was to identify womenchr('39')s perceptions of barriers to career advancement based on psychological and health components.
 
Methods: The research method is combined and applied. The subjects in the quality department were managers working in sports organizations and semi-structured interviews were conducted in a targeted manner with snowballs and data collection tools. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire was designed and provided to 207 female experts working in the Ministry of Sports and Youth, as well as the Department of Sports and Youth of Tehran Province, to express their agreement with each of the factors. After validation, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbachchr('39')s alpha coefficient that all of which had a Cronbachchr('39')s alpha coefficient above 0.8.
           
Results: By analyzing the manuscripts of the interviews, seven main themes were extracted that included individual barriers, family barriers, knowledge barriers, organizational barriers, barriers Management, environmental barriers, barriers to affective institutions and 18 sub-themes including personal barriers, psychological barriers, different roles, lack of support and support, educational barriers, lack of knowledge and awareness. Keywords, Organizational Culture, Employment Patterns, Career and Progress Clarity, Communication Factors, Leadership Styles, Managers Attitudes, Board Composition, Political Barriers, Legal Barriers, Socio-cultural, educational, and audio barriers were categorized.
 
Conclusion: The first category identified is individual barriers; which includes the two concepts of personal barriers and psychological barriers. Numerous researchers have cited individual factors as challenges to womenchr('39')s employment in Iran and some other researchers see personal factors as an obstacle to womenchr('39')s professional advancement. Women score lower in terms of power-seeking, competitiveness, assertiveness, and a sense of comfort in exercising power, and are less motivated to manage than men. The second category identified is family barriers; which includes two concepts of different roles of female employees as well as lack of support from the family. According to the theory of work-life conflicts, working women take on family responsibilities in addition to their job and professional responsibilities. These tasks make them unable to fully meet the expectations of both roles on the one hand, and on the other hand they want to play both roles, which creates a difficult situation for them. The third category identified is knowledge barriers; which includes the two concepts of educational barriers and lack of necessary knowledge and awareness. Proponents of human capital theory argue that women are less experienced than men in terms of intelligence and education as men, because they have spent fewer years as a workforce. The fourth category identified is organizational factors; which includes four concepts of organizational culture, employment patterns, clarity of career paths and progress and communication factors. Organizational culture of any set is a mirror of its features, characteristics, strengths and weaknesses, it can show its inner and outer face in terms of employeeschr('39') adherence to values, principles, beliefs, attitudes and other related beliefs. Give. By studying the organizational culture of an organization, one can understand the value cohesion and commitment of its employees. The fifth category identified is managerial factors;  which includes three concepts of management styles, managerschr('39') attitudes and board composition. Some researchers point to the lack of support from the leader of the organization for the promotion of women to managerial positions, and others believe that male managers have little inclination to coach women. Many managers hire women for low-paying jobs for less. The sixth category identified is environmental barriers, which include political barriers, legal barriers, and socio-cultural barriers, each of which is an obstacle to womenchr('39')s career advancement in sports. some researchers have mentioned social and political factors as barriers to career advancement for women working at Sharif University of Technology and point out that according to feminist gender theory and social obstruction from childhood, there is a difference between the attitudes and education of girls and boys. And usually men are preferred for many things. They also say that deliberate application of discriminatory laws closes the way for women to achieve many things. According to the glass ceiling theory, the unequal position of women in the labor market is not due to one factor, but to the complex convergence and interaction between various political, economic, legal, social beliefs, operations and actions of individuals and organizations. Therefore, it can be concluded that environmental barriers can be considered as barriers to womenchr('39')s career advancement in sports. The seventh and last category identified are influential institutions, which include education and radio and television, which affect the career advancement of women in sports. Sex discrimination in the type of education and the education system is one of the obvious obstacles to womenchr('39')s participation in all areas of economic activity. According to the theory of cultural capital, what is transferred from the family and the social environment to the individual can increase the range of opportunities, elections and authority of individuals and make the individual aware of the benefits. Whereas the mass media are the most important custodians of culture and social change in societies; The mass media, with the support and assistance of academic and research centers, especially scientific institutes related to women, should identify the wrong and negative beliefs and attitudes about gender, and in the second place in order to eliminate and replace with positive beliefs and attitudes.
 
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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