Volume 28, Issue 3 (5-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(3): 107-116 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: IR.IAU.ABOL.REC.1398.092
Ethics code: IR.IAU.ABOL.REC.1398.092
Clinical trials code: IR.IAU.ABOL.REC.1398.092

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Shirkhani S, barari A, Abbasi Daloii A, Saravi M. The effectiveness of aerobic exercise with omega-3 intake on the expression of PLC and PKB genes in men with CAD. RJMS. 2021; 28 (3) :107-116
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-6503-en.html
Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University , alireza54.barari@gmail.com
Abstract:   (425 Views)
Background & Aims: With increasing urbanization in the developing world, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is observed worldwide and is likely to become the most common cause of death worldwide by 2020 (1). On the other hand, physical exercise can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease by increasing the maximum oxygen consumption and favorable hemostatic effects (2). Decreased elasticity of large arteries and impaired vascular endothelium are two important factors affecting vascular function (3). Studies show that aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness in healthy people of all ages and coronary artery disease patients (5). Therefore, many researchers have concluded that exercise programs by patients improve performance, physical and mental fitness, reduce the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction, reduce heart rate and systolic blood pressure and the amount of oxygen consumed by resting heart muscle. Increasing the capacity of aerobic activity leads to changes in cardiac risk factors, reducing anxiety and depression (4). One of the effective factors in cardiovascular signaling in these effects of exercise is protein kinase B (PKB). Protein kinase B, also known as Akt, is a serine / threonine-specific protein kinase protein. PKB activates a variety of proteins that generally help cells survive and grow. PKB is a key mediator of multiple signaling pathways in angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Activation of protein kinase b (Akt) impairs mitochondrial function in cardiac hypertrophy (7). It has also been suggested that phospholipase, as an enzyme of the lipase group that breaks down phospholipids into fatty acids and other fatty compounds, is involved in signaling and messaging in the cardiovascular pathway (9, 10). On the other hand, it has been shown that dietary or pharmacological interventions can affect heart function. Among these, omega-3 supplements have been considered and recommended due to their beneficial compounds (11). Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, lipid-lowering and vasodilating effects. These effects of omega-3 fatty acids are secondary to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression (13). Due to the limited research and also the contradiction of previous research on the effect of exercise and omega-3 supplementation on patients with coronary artery disease, the question arises that how effective is aerobic exercise with omega-3 intake on the expression of PLC and PKB genes in men with CAD?
Methods: The method of the present study was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design. The statistical population in this study were all men with cardiovascular disease referred to Rouhani and Shahid Beheshti hospitals in Babol (in the second half of 1997-98) from which 32 people were selected as a statistical sample and randomly selected in four Group: control, omega-3, exercise and omega-3 exercise. This study was approved by the ethics committee at the Islamic Azad University, Babol Branch (reference number: IR.IAU.ABOL.REC.1398.092). The training program consisted of eight weeks of intermittent running training, three sessions per week with an intensity between 55 and 65% of the subjects' reserve heart rate (HRR) and with emphasis on gradual overload. In these exercises, the beginning of each exercise session began with 10 minutes of general warm-up, including stretching, light and dynamic movements of the whole body, and at the end, 10 minutes of cooling was done (1, 4). 1000 mg of omega-3 daily in the morning in the form of a capsule (EPA180 and DHA120) with the brand name fish oil viva omega3 made in Canada was consumed with the main meal. Because the supplement is a kind of oil and is better absorbed with food (12).Blood samples were collected from the subjects 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session, after a night fast, and the serum was separated by centrifugation. After performing real time PCR and collecting raw data, they were reviewed and analyzed. One-way analysis of variance and subsequent Tukey test were used to examine the group changes from pretest to posttest after delta. Significance level is considered in all cases (α<0.05). All statistical operations were performed using GraghPadprism 8 and Excel software at a significant level of p<0.05.
Results: The results showed a significant difference in changes in PKB and PLC gene expression between different groups from pre-test to post-test (p<0.0001). The results of Tukey post hoc test also showed that there was a significant decrease between the mean expression of PKB gene in exercise, omega and exercise + omega groups compared to the control group (p<0.0001). Also, the results of Tukey post hoc test showed that the mean ratio of changes in PLC gene expression in the exercise, omega and combination omega + omega training groups compared to the control group increased significantly (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the mean expression of PLC gene in training groups, omega and a combination of training + omega from pre-test to post-test had a significant increase. The omega + exercise group had a greater and more significant increase than the omega and exercise groups. Also, the mean ratio of PKB gene expression changes (AKT) in training groups, omega and combination of training + omega from pre-test to post-test had a significant decrease. However, the omega + exercise group showed a further decrease. Myocyte growth and angiogenesis in the coronary artery are dependent on AKT-mTOR. During Akt-mediated physiological cardiac growth, the Akt-mTOR pathway is activated, promoting both myocyte growth and coronary angiogenesis, leading to the maintenance of capillary density (17). Excessive and prolonged expression of activated Akt causes heart failure, and Akt activation has also been observed in the immature myocardium (18). In contrast, endothelial cells have been shown to treat phospholipase (PLC) C inhibitors (18). Research shows that exercise has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular adaptation, which can vary according to the type, intensity and duration of exercise (19). People with higher levels of physical activity are less likely to die from cardiovascular disease (19). Zhao et al. (2017) investigated the effect of treadmill training on signaling pathways affecting angiogenic factors and showed that the possible mechanism of upregulation of angiogenic factors and stimulation of phosphorylation of their receptors as well as downstream signaling pathway through pathways such as PLC Takes (23). Avseh et al. (2018) also showed the facilitation of lipolysis of adipose tissue during exercise through PIPLC / IP3 pathways (24). Epidemiological studies also show the benefits of n-3 PUFA (omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids) on cardiovascular health. Interventional studies confirmed that the use of n-3PUFA provides benefits for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Evidence from cellular and molecular research studies suggests that the protective effects of n-3 PUFA on the heart are due to synergies between complex and multiple mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory, lipid-mediated dissolution, modulation of cardiac ion channels, and reduction of triglycerides. , Effect on membrane micro-domains and downstream cell signaling pathways and anti-thrombotic and anti-arrhythmic effects (25). In this study, it was found that intermittent exercise combined with omega-3 by providing PLC expression and decreasing PKB expression (AKT) provides protective effects against pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Therefore, it seems that these interventions can be used to improve coronary heart disease. One of the limitations of the present study was that the different doses of omega-3 were not compared with exercise. Therefore, further research is needed to more accurately investigate the mechanisms of omega-3 effects on coronary heart disease. In summary, according to the results of the present study, which showed an increase in PLC gene expression and a decrease in PKB gene expression after the simultaneous effect of intermittent exercise and omega-3 supplementation, it can be said that, possibly, exercise ability and omega-3 supplementation Increased control of homeostasis in coronary artery insufficiency suggests an important molecular mechanism underlying the benefits of these interventions.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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