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Ethics code: IR.PNU.REC.1401.019)
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Pashapour Badr M, ghaffari M. Medical Students’ Academic Burnout Model Based on Academic Tenacity, Academic Responsibility, and Moral Resilience. RJMS 2024; 31
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-8082-en.html
IUMS , mehripashapour@gmail.com
Abstract:   (183 Views)
Background and Purpose:
Every year knowledge-seekers are admitted into universities as new students. Young (2004) believes that students are considered as employed because of completing their assignments, and the educational setting is their workplace. (1) Therefore, they are prone to burnout. Excessive study workload, content presentation, professor’s requests and expectations of students, highly educational expenses,  and apprenticeship in underrepresented areas in some educational fields such as medicine led to exhaustion, lack of motivation, disinterest to courses, apathy to educational settings and indifference to rules and regulations, and discouragement. Overload of these problems in the long term led to confusion, emotional disturbances and finally burnout. Medical students, rather than other students, are more prone to distress due to patient mortality, exposure to patients with complicated care needs, interpersonal challenges, high workload, visiting too many patients in a day, decision-making responsibility in emergencies without having sufficient knowledge, accountability against their decisions, working under mental pressure to avoid medical errors, being exposed to violence and threats in the workplace, and doing night shifts.(3) Burnout is a psychological and emotional fatigue that is the result of chronic stress syndrome such as role burden, pressure and time constraints, and lack of necessary resources to conduct tasks and duties. Research has indicated that academic burnout is similar to job burnout in terms of its features, antecedents, and outcomes. Job burnout is defined as one of the major health indicators of psychological health with three dimensions of fatigue, apathy (doubt and pessimism), and inefficiency. (4) Academic burnout in students means feeling exhausted to complete assignments and studying (academic fatigue), having pessimistic attitude to education and educational content (academic disinterest), and a sense of academic incompetence (inefficiency). (2) Recognition of factors affecting academic burnout in students leads to understanding their diverse behaviors during their years of study, their relationship in the educational setting, and their motivation and enthusiasm to continue education, because burnout appears after a long run and if it continues it might remain stable and permanent. Students suffering from burnout during their years of study will experience negative effects of burnout and will be less efficient to perform their job tasks and duties and will be less innovative in the future. Psychological research indicates that diverse internal and external factors affect academic burnout. One of these intrapersonal factors is resilience. (4) Resilience is a promising and pleasant solution considering stressful situations and people’s inherent capacity to respond and endure the situation and the experience of natural growth in stressful conditions.(6) According to Baratz (2015), moral resilience is the ability to cope with situations using values that people believe in, even if to follow them is difficult. Rushton (2016) and Lachman (2016) considering the definition of resilience, believe that it is the ability to return to the primary status and successful coping despite distress and adverse conditions, and it has two components. The first factor is the existing situation and problem that includes moral themes (moral adversity). (7) And the second factor is maintaining coherence and integrity according to personal beliefs and values and performing an action to overcome moral issues. The other variable that could affect academic burnout is responsibility. From Fromm’s point of view, responsibility is an absolute need and an internal commitment of the individual to perform all the responsibilities favorably and it originates from within the individual. Chamuru et al. (cited by Yuzbashi, 2018) found that discipline and achievement orientation, carefulness, persistence, and punctuality are individual performance predictors in different fields such as academic success. On the other hand, irresponsibility in education leads to consecutive failures and quitting the program of study. (8)(13) Tenacity as a personal characteristic is the source of resistance against life distressful events. (9) It is a personality construct that includes committed direction (versus self- alienation), control (versus low power), and understanding the changes and life needs as challenge (versus threats). According to Benishek and Lopez (2001), students who choose challenging academic programs adopt a behavior that supports them to overcome difficulties of their study program and regulate their emotional reactions when receiving feedback. (10) Kobasa theory (1998) indicates that three processes of cognitive evaluation (control, commitment, and the ability to challenge), stability and perseverance are related to the confrontation time with challenging life events. (9) Since medical students are responsible for maintaining and ensuring people’s health in the future, to conduct their roles as experts or health care providers (therapists) competently, educational systems must be aware of the stress inducing factors affecting them during their challenging prolonged study years during which they experience unfortunate incidences. There is no doubt that neglecting the problems and their accumulation from one hand led to waste of financial and human resources of educational departments of the universities; and, on the other hand lowers the quality of health care provision at the societal level. Therefore, considering the aforementioned, this study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between the influencing variables of academic tenacity, academic responsibility, and morale resilience on the academic burnout of the medical students and defining an academic burnout model based on these variables.
Methodology:
This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 216 medical students who were studied in Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in the academic year of 2021-2022. Due to the spread of the COVID-19, the study participants responded to demographic, burnout, tenacity, moral resilience, and academic responsibility questionnaires.
Pearson correlation coefficient, Sobel, Bootstrap, and SEM structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data via SPSS and Amos (V.23).
Results:
Considering that the Chi-square index of the hypothetical model was significant in the statistical level of P<0.05 academic responsibility variable, as a moderating variable is both a mediator of the relationship between tenacity and burnout and also a mediator of moral resilience and burnout. Taking responsibility with features such as behavioral and psychological attitudes, respecting differences, and understanding them, maintaining integrity, and fulfilling obligations lead to experiencing positive emotions and reinforces them.
Conclusion
In this condition, considering more possibilities to reach one’s goals, the individual follows the goal-reaching path with more capability and adaptability. Those who experience positive emotions with the passage of time, experience an increased thought-action tendencies in their life, understand the challenging and unfavorable situations better, and act more cautiously.
 
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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