Volume 29, Issue 10 (12-2022)                   RJMS 2022, 29(10): 169-180 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.IAU.B.REC.1398.001

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Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran , Ko.Goodarzy@iau.ac.ir
Abstract:   (816 Views)
Background & Aims: Addiction is one of the most important social deviations, which is the basis of many harms and social problems at the level of society. The side effects of addiction at the psychological and individual level have been and continue to be harmful to the social sector and society as a whole. In this regard, health is one of the main foundations of human life and the necessary conditions for fulfilling his social roles, and addicted people whose health is at risk in some way can continue their individual and collective activities in a desirable way who feels healthy and in addition to the socio-economic status, other factors such as biological, interpersonal and psychological-behavioral factors are also improved in them. Meanwhile, improving psycho-behavioral factors or psychological characteristics such as resilience and irrational beliefs are of particular importance. Resiliency of addicts can be affected by addiction and related conditions. Resilience of addicts can be affected by addiction and related conditions. Historically, the majority of preventive researches and development of interventions aimed at problematic behaviors have been focused on identifying risk factors and high-risk populations; Resilience is more than simply recovering from turmoil. Resilience increases the ability to tolerate and adapt to life crises and overcome them.  Also, addiction can intensify irrational beliefs. Irrational beliefs can become mandatory and definite goals, which if not met, lead to confusion and anxiety. The basic assumption of cognitive theories is that dysfunctional thoughts are involved in the way a person interprets and evaluates reality, and also the behavioral responses that result from certain interpretations are involved in the persistence of substance abuse disorder.
 In this regard, any intervention that can affect the above variables and improve them, will create better conditions for the psychological condition of addicts. Research has shown that cognitive therapy training is effective in reducing the symptoms of irrational beliefs. Therefore, cognitive therapy based on mindfulness (MBCT), as an intervention can lead to improving resiliency and irrational beliefs in addicted people. In this type of treatment, mindfulness is non-judgmental and is based on the present. In fact, this type of treatment can help in releasing automatic thoughts, unhealthy habits and behavioral patterns, and therefore can play an important role in regulating behavior, including aggressive behaviors and increases the ability to tolerate and adapt to life crises and overcome them.
In Iran, extensive research has not been done on the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on improving the psychological characteristics of addicts. Therefore, investigating the effectiveness of this group of interventions on resilience and irrational beliefs of addicted people is of particular importance. So, the main application of the current research is regarding the effectiveness of cognitive therapy based on mindfulness (MBCT), because it can reduce the level of dependence addiction and have a positive effect on mental health indicators. Hence, in the present study, the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognition has been measured and its effects on resiliency and irrational beliefs have been investigated.
Methods: The current research was semi-experimental and pre-test and post-test type with a heterogeneous control group. The statistical population in this research included all addicts who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Tehran with an age range between 18 and 65 years. The number of 40 people who met the criteria for entering the research, such as not suffering from chronic physical and mental illness, not taking certain drugs, and not attending the detoxification period, were selected as the sample group using the available non-random sampling method. Two groups (an experimental group and a control group) were randomly assigned. Then, the participants were randomly replaced in two groups. First, using Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (2003) and Jones irrational beliefs questionnaire (1968), the pre-test was performed on both groups. Then the experimental group was exposed to 12 sessions (3 times a week for 90 minutes), of cognitive therapy based on mindfulness (MBCT). It was based on the protocol of Teasdale et al (2000), but the control group did not receive any treatment program after the pre-test. Finally, the post-test was conducted for both groups. The research data were analyzed using the statistical method of multivariate covariance analysis. The data of this research were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods such as mean, standard deviation and variance as well as the inferential statistical method of multivariate covariance analysis with the help of SPSS 20 statistical software.
Results: The results show that in the resiliency and irrational belief, after removing the effect of the pre-test on the dependent variable, it is observed that between the adjusted averages of the scores of all the dependent variables in patients with addiction according to group membership (experimental and control groups) There is a significant difference in the post-test stage (P<0.001). Therefore, cognitive therapy based on mindfulness (MBCT), has had an effect on reducing the resiliency and irrational belief scores of addiction patients in the experimental group in the post-test. Therefore, cognitive therapy based on mindfulness has had an effect on increasing the resiliency and irrational belief scores of patients with addiction in the experimental groups in the post-test.
Conclusion: In explaining the results, it can be said that the goal of cognitive therapy based on mindfulness is to help people to experience their disturbing thoughts as a thought and to become aware of the dysfunctional nature of their thoughts and instead of responding to them, they only watch them. If they are in an addicted person, unusual issues become normal issues; Because of this, the addict basically has high expectations of situations. On the other hand, the addicted person not only always uses the projection mechanism, which is the basis of irrational beliefs, but also finds an irrational belief about addiction. In cognitive therapy based on mindfulness (MBCT), trainings such as letting go of negative thoughts and conceptualizing instead of self, strengthening the self-observer, accepting internal events instead of controlling them. In fact, the main goal of this treatment is to create psychological flexibility or resiliency; It means creating the ability to choose an action among different options that is more suitable, not that an action is performed or actually imposed on a person simply to avoid disturbing thoughts, feelings, memories or tendencies, such as drug addiction. With mindfulness in cognitive therapy, people are taught to live in the present and now and better deal with the challenges of addiction as well as the challenges after that.
Also, in accordance with the findings related to resilience, the application of this method has been able to provide a kind of positive attitude towards the surrounding environment to addicts and basically improve the knowledge of the environment and thus prevent relapse. In other words, the application of cognitive therapy based on mindfulness has been able to provide addicts with a positive attitude towards the surrounding environment and basically improve their knowledge of the environment. In this way, it can be acknowledged that cognitive-behavioral treatments can be considered as a useful treatment by psychologists and counselors and can have a complementary aspect to drug treatment in improving psychological problems associated with addiction.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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