Volume 29, Issue 12 (3-2023)                   RJMS 2023, 29(12): 1-11 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 01
Ethics code: IR.IAU.M.REC.1400.021
Clinical trials code: 01

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Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran , bagherpoor_ta@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (823 Views)
Background & Aims: Increasing the intensity of physical activity and as a result increasing oxidative stress causes free radicals in the body and these free radicals destroy cell biological structures such as proteins, fats, membranes, and structures. They are inherited. Considering that taking supplements can be a good way to control the effects of strenuous physical activity; therefore, it is important to study the mechanism of action of complementary compounds of organic and non-organic origin and compare their effects and performance at the biochemical and genetic level. In this regard, the study of the expression of genes related to the inhibition of oxidative stress can be a direct and appropriate solution to evaluate the function of various supplements. The satellite cells beneath the skeletal muscle basement membrane are adjacent to Myofibrillar sarcoma and makeup 2 to 7% of the nuclei of a muscle fiber. The number of satellite cells depends on the type of muscle fiber, age, and species. The amount of these cells varies at different ages; in the neonatal, adult, and older mice, they make up 30%, 4%, and 2% of the muscle nuclei, respectively, and as they age, the decrease in satellite cells increases the number of muscle nuclei. It becomes glycolytic fibers. The migration capacity of satellite cells depends on the integrity and integrity of the cell's basement membrane. After rupture (high-intensity destruction) of the basement membrane by muscle damage, satellite cells migrate to adjacent damaged myofibrils using tissue connections, but only if tissue damage is limited. And if there is no rupture in the basal lamina, the satellite cells move to the affected area from the beginning of the healthy myofibril section (below the membrane) to participate in the repair of muscle tissue. Activation of satellite cells (six hours after muscle injury) rapidly increases the expression of the myoD gene, which is why this factor transcribes into adult skeletal muscle, activates and multiplies satellite cells. They take into account. The amount of myoD transcription factor mRNA varies at different ages and is more pronounced in fast-twitch muscles. In animal models, the amount of myoD gene protein is lower in the fast and slow-twitch muscles of older mice. This value is lowest in the horseshoe muscle and therefore the response of the horseshoe myoD gene (slow-twitch muscle) is also lower than that of the Plantaris muscle (fast-twitch muscle). In addition, the effects of supplements on myoD gene expression in muscle have not been studied, but in a study, the protective effect of organic Spirulina supplementation in preventing the destruction of hereditary structures in mice has been shown and appears. Consumption of this supplement is a good way to prevent injuries caused by oxidative stress in muscle, and most of the research done on this gene has paid less attention to slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle contraction and experimental models (animal and human). While the protocols for this research were either endurance or the measurement times after physical activity was not appropriate. With this description, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of organic and inorganic supplementation on myoD gene expression in slow-twitch muscle after a session of high-intensity resistance activity to determine whether organic and inorganic supplementation on myoD gene expression. In slow muscle, does the contraction of the horseshoe muscle have different effects after a session of high-intensity resistance activity?
Methods: In this experimental study, 40 Wistar rats with an average weight of 100-200 g were prepared and in the control groups (number = 10), exercise (number = 10), Spirulina + exercise (number = 10), glutamine + exercise (number = 10) were divided. Mice in the exercise group performed a two-week exercise program of 3 days per week of walking on a sloping surface (4 sets, 5 repetitions, 30 seconds rest between repetitions), and the supplement + exercise group performed a supplement program five days before the main protocol. They consumed half a gram/kg of body weight once a day. The obtained data were evaluated by t-test.
Results: The results showed that the relative expression of myoD gene in slow-twitch muscle tissue after taking an organic Spirulina supplement was significant after performing a session of high-intensity resistance activity (P 0.001). While in slow muscle contraction, the change in expression after glutamine and resistance exercise is no different from the control group (P = 0.245).
Conclusion: In general, it can be concluded that the use of organic supplements is a good way to prevent reduced expression and the amount of damage to muscle fibers after high-intensity resistance exercise. These results may be due to possible injuries after high-intensity resistance exercise in slow-twitch fibers, or they may indicate a response to the development of adaptations related to the performance of resistance training in such fibers. It is important to note that in the Spirulina organic supplement group, prior to a high-intensity resistance activity session, myoD gene expression was lower than in high-intensity resistance activity without supplementation. Taking an organic supplement is a good way to prevent reduced expression and the amount of damage to muscle fibers. So far, the effects of glutamine and Spirulina supplements on the expression of myoD gene in muscle have not been studied, but a study has shown the protective effect of organic Spirulina supplementation in preventing DNA damage in mice. Taking this supplement is a good way to prevent injuries caused by oxidative stress in the muscle. Since in each study, there are limitations that can affect the results of the study, so this study also had such limitations that include not determining some of the basic physiological capacities in resting and training states of mice, lack of Determining the effects of organic and inorganic supplements on the expression of the target gene independently and without performing intense one-session resistance activity, no measurement of morphological changes in adult male Wistar rats, no measurement of protein content by the method Western blot and lack of control over the activity of adult male Wistar rats were in cages. According to the results of the study, it is suggested that in combination with high-intensity resistance activity, it is better to use appropriate supplements such as organic Spirulina supplement to increase the expression of myoD gene, which may be affected by the amount of damage to muscle fibers.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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