Volume 28, Issue 1 (3-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(1): 34-46 | Back to browse issues page

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Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran , bijeh.um@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1971 Views)
Background & Aims: Walking as a form of transportation, is the basis for competitive sports as well as health and fitness. However, in connection with the common style of walking forward much research has been done, however, walking backward has not been noticed and is new to most people (11). Walking backward can have potentially beneficial benefits for rehabilitating a physical injury and be equally important for a sedentary one (14). Electromyographic activity of the lower limb muscles while walking backward is higher than forwards, resulting in more energy consumption (15). Other benefits of walking backward include producing more muscle activity due to the person's effort compared to walking forward. This consumes more energy while walking backward. Also, walking back requires more oxygen, metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses than walking forward (16, 17). The researches done in this regard have shortcomings so that in none of the researches, a certain speed has been used and the subjects have practiced at the desired speed and the intensity of the exercises is not known in much researches. On the other hand, in this researches, exercises have been performed on a flat surface without slopes and on the ground, and most of the tests performed have been reported in the field using formulas and mathematical calculations, and laboratory and accurate studies are rarely seen among them. Therefore, according to the above, it is possible to observe different effects in training responses by manipulating the components and training methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of four weeks of walking back and forth on a treadmill on the components of body composition and physical fitness in sedentary and overweight girls.
Methods: The present study was conducted in a quasi-experimental design with two measurement steps and in two groups (walking forward and walking backward). The statistical population of this study was female students of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and the statistical sample of the study was 30 female students who were selected voluntarily through available sampling and based on research criteria. Before the start of the study, all subjects attended a coordination session and in this session, after a complete description of the objectives, research method, and possible risks arising from the research, all subjects completed the informed consent form, relevant questionnaires and randomly in two The group of 15 people was divided into walking forward and walking backward. Subjects in both groups performed back and forth walking protocols for four weeks. Measurement of variables from subjects (fat mass weight, lean mass weight, hamstring flexibility, quadriceps flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, hamstring muscle strength, quadriceps strength, hamstring endurance, quadriceps endurance- Thigh, static balance) was performed in two stages 24 hours before the first training session and 48 hours after the last training session in the fourth week. The training protocol consisted of four weeks of walking forward on a treadmill (for the forward walking group) and four weeks of walking backward on the treadmill (for the backward walking group), which was performed 3 sessions per week (4). Each session included 5 minutes of warm-up and 5 minutes of cooling with a treadmill at the desired speed. The training speed for 4 weeks was 1.1 m / s equal to 4 km / h and the treadmill slope was equal to 5%. To increase the load, the training time was increased by 5 minutes per week and reached 25 minutes in the last week (4). To measure body composition variables (weight, fat mass, and lean mass) from body composition analyzer with Inbody720 brand made in South Korea, the flexibility of hamstring and quadriceps muscle using a goniometer (9). Maximum oxygen consumption using Bruce test (12), lower body muscle strength using forward thigh movements with the machine and back movement with a supine device (10), muscular endurance using repetition to fatigue test with 70% of maximum repetition The person was moving in front of the thigh and behind the thigh with the device (12) and the balance was measured with the help of the Biodex balance device (13). SPSS statistical software (version 16) was used to analyze the data. Also, to compare intra-group and inter-group changes, the dependent and independent therapeutic methods were used, respectively. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The results showed that between the two groups walking forward and walking backwards in the values of fat mass weight (p = 0.315), lean mass weight (p=0.872), general balance score (p=0.571), There is no significant difference between posterior anterior balance score (p=0.675), lateral balance score (p=0.987) and maximum oxygen consumption (p=0.053). But between the two groups in terms of superior hamstring muscle flexibility (p=0.001), non-superior hamstring muscle flexibility (p=0.015), superior quadriceps muscle flexibility (p=0.012), muscle flexibility Non-superior quadriceps (p=0.001), hamstring muscle strength (p=0.002), quadriceps muscle strength (p=0.001), hamstring muscle endurance (p=0.003) and endurance There is a significant difference in the quadriceps muscle (p=0.001) in favor of the backward walking group.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that walking forward during a four-week training period has a positive effect on improving cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle flexibility and static balance, however, it has no effect on body composition indicators. The results also showed that walking backwards during a four-week training period has a positive effect on improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, and muscle flexibility and is more effective than walking forward. It also improves cardiorespiratory endurance index and static balance, although it did not show a significant difference with the way of walking forward, however, it had no effect on body composition indices. Therefore, using this method can play an important role in improving physical fitness indicators in sedentary people. Sedentary and overweight girls can use a four-week back-and-forth workout to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscle flexibility, and static balance. Back, this method is recommended.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Sports Medicine

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