Volume 28, Issue 10 (12-2021)                   RJMS 2021, 28(10): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: IR.IAU.SARI.REC.1398.076
Ethics code: IR.IAU.SARI.REC.1398.076
Clinical trials code: IR.IAU.SARI.REC.1398.076

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Rahmati Ghajari F, Fakhri M, mirzaian B. The effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) on the skills, adjustment and emotional regulation of children with confrontational disobedience disorder. RJMS. 2021; 28 (10)
URL: http://rjms.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7326-en.html
Department of Psychology, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran , fakhri@iausari.ac.ir
Abstract:   (120 Views)
1.Introduction
Childhood years are the most important years of life and the experiences of these years are the basis of the future life of every human being. Disorders that are usually first diagnosed in childhood cover a wide range of disorders, from attention problems to severe mental disabilities (1). One of these disorders is confrontational disobedience disorder, which is an externalizing disorder of children's emotional-behavioral problems and is common in families where child care is due to the successive replacement of different care. It is broken or in families where child care is conducted in a violent, unstable or neglected manner (3). One of the main responsibilities of parents is to teach life skills to their children to ensure that children are ready to enter the real world (4). One of the skills that children deal with is the skill of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation training means reducing and controlling negative emotions and the method of using positive emotions (7). In addition, studies have shown that psychological interventions have been effective in reducing psychological symptoms by modulating emotion regulation (9).
So far, a variety of treatments have been used to address the behavioral and emotional problems of children with confrontational disobedience disorder. These include parent-child interaction therapy. This treatment is designed for children with serious behavioral problems, and children benefit from a set of behavioral behaviors, including coping disorder (11). This treatment allows parents to manage the child's behaviors more effectively, thus increasing desirable behaviors and reducing undesirable behaviors (12). Also in this behavioral model, parents learn to use less punitive methods to control their children and to strengthen constructive ways to cope with emotions such as failure (5).
McDiarmid and Begnner (2005) emphasize that the treatment of parent-child interaction allows parents to manage child behaviors more effectively, thereby increasing the child's desirable behaviors and reducing undesirable behaviors (18). Given the above, the question arises for the researcher, whether the therapy based on parent-child interaction has an effect on reducing children's confrontational disobedience disorder?
2.Methods
To conduct the present applied research, which was performed semi-experimentally with a pre-test-post-test design with a control group, among children aged 6 to 11 years referred to the psychiatric clinic of Zare Hospital in Sari in the first half of 1398 by a child and adolescent psychiatrist Visited and received a clinical diagnosis of confrontational defiant disorder, 40 people were purposefully selected and randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Subjects then the Dokhanchi Children Adaptation Skills Scale (1998) consisted of 37 questions based on a four-choice range (never, rarely, sometimes, and most of the time) and the Gulen and Tuff Emotion Difficulty Scale (2012) consisted of 10 items. They completed the 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) in the pre-test. Following the parent-child interaction therapy developed by Sheila Eiberg (1999) at the University of Florida, the experimental group was individually administered for 10 one-hour weekly sessions, and questionnaires were collected again to collect data on The test was completed. It should be noted that the validity and reliability of the questionnaires were confirmed. Finally, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and Shapirovilk tests and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data.
3.Results
The results of the present study showed that the mean final scores of the experimental and control groups in the pre-test were not significantly different, while the mean of the final scores of emotion regulation and adjustment skills of children in the experimental group in the post-test was higher than the control group.
The results showed that parent-child interaction education has an effect on adjustment skills (p≥0.000, F = 138.73, df 78 and 1) and in the meanwhile the effect of parent-child interaction therapy education is equal to (74), ie 74% of the increase in adjustment skills is related to the effect of treatment based on parent-child interaction in children with confrontational disobedience disorder.
Another finding showed that therapy based on parent-child interaction has an effect on emotional regulation skills (p = 0.000), F = 91.50, 78 and 1 (df =) and the effect on emotional regulation skills is equal to (65). That is, 65% of the increase in emotional regulation is related to the effect of treatment education based on parent-child interaction with confrontational disobedience disorder.
4.Discussion
The results show that parent-child interaction therapy is effective on the adaptive skills of children with coping disorder. Explaining this finding, it can be said that cognitive-behavioral therapies can help children with coping disorder to improve their mood and control their anger. Combining this model with play therapy provides the basis for providing a dynamic interpersonal relationship between the child and a trained therapist (24). Therefore, in the present study, the treatment based on parent-child interaction was effective on the social adjustment skills of children with coping disorder.
Another finding showed that parent-child interaction therapy is effective on emotional regulation of children with confrontational disobedience disorder. Explaining this finding, it can be said that when a person is faced with an emotional situation, feeling good and optimistic alone is not enough to control his emotions. He needs to have the best cognitive function in these moments (28) and tries to control his emotions. Emotion control involves creating thoughts and behaviors that inform people what kind of emotion they have, when that emotion arises in them, and how they should express it. In the treatment of parent-child interaction, goals such as improving the quality of parent-child relationships, reducing behavioral problems, increasing social behaviors, increasing parenting skills including positive discipline and reducing parental stress are pursued (29). Treatment of parent-child interaction allows parents to manage the child's behaviors and emotions more effectively, thus increasing desirable behaviors and reducing undesirable emotional behaviors (12).
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Clinical Psychiatry

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