Research code: مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری است
Ethics code: متعهد مي شويم تا قبل از چاپ مقاله كد اخلاق درج گردد
Clinical trials code: مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری است

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Islamic Azad University ,
Abstract:   (81 Views)
Diabetes is a mild chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased levels of circulating inflammatory agents secreted by adipose tissue called adipokines (2). Inflammation of adipose tissue is an important feature of adipose tissue disorder in obese people that is involved in the pathogenesis of related diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (3). Proinflammatory molecules produced in adipose tissue lead to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways (4). Among inflammatory molecules, MCP-1 is one of the major adipokines that initiates the penetration of adipose tissue macrophages and systemic insulin resistance (6). MCP-1 enhances the migration and transport of inflammatory cells by activating integrin and chemotaxis. It has been observed that MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue and plasma levels of MCP-1 is positively regulated by the degree of obesity. In addition, increased expression of this chemokine in adipose tissue precedes the expression of other macrophage markers during the spread of obesity (6). MCP-1 messaging also plays a direct role in the spread of obesity (7).
In general, research suggests that lifestyle interventions such as exercise and diet can be helpful in managing diabetes. In addition, it has been shown that different methods of exercise have different effects on glycemic control in diabetic patients (7).
However, there is still no general consensus on the best way to exercise to affect diabetics. Therefore, according to the above and the proven role of various sports exercises in reducing the amount of adipose tissue in human and animal samples (10) and on the other hand due to increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing insulin resistance as a result of exercise and their different effects. On MCP-1 (11) and the close relationship between insulin resistance and increase in concentration and expression of MCP-1 (12) Has not been. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern adaptations stimulated by the three methods of exercise in adipose tissue and the regulatory mechanisms that improve adipose tissue metabolism can be therapeutically useful for maintaining health or treating disease.
The present study was experimental in terms of implementation and fundamental in terms of purpose. For this study, 45 8-week-old male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: resistance training (10 heads), endurance training (10 pieces), combination training (10 heads) and control training (10 heads). Rats were injected with nicotinamide (95 mg / kg body weight of saline) and after 15 minutes STZ injection (55 mg / kg body weight, prepared in sodium citrate buffer with pH). = 4/7) became diabetic subcutaneously. Rats in control groups received the same amount of buffer. 5 days after injection using a glucometer, rats with serum glucose between 300 and 360 mg / dL were considered diabetic.
This study is based on the guidelines of the American Heart and Diabetes Association based on the principles of resistance exercise in diabetics and based on previous research (13) as a set of 10 repetitions with 90-second rest intervals, climbing the ladder of resistance training It was performed at a height of 1 m and a slope of 85 degrees with a weight attached to the base of the tail. In the first week, the aim was to familiarize the rats with the training protocol and at the end of the week, the maximum weight carrying capacity of the rats was measured, then the rats with 70 to 75% of their maximum weight carrying capacity, three sessions per week for another 5 weeks. And practiced according to the principle of overload.
To do aerobic exercise, first during the first week and for adaptation, 3 sessions a week for 10-15 minutes at a speed of 10 meters per minute, walked on a treadmill, then endurance exercise program with moderate intensity (50-60% of maximum oxygen Consumption) for 5 weeks and 3 sessions per week and the speed and duration of exercise gradually increased (14).
The combined sports activity group performed both training protocols in one training session. 48 hours after the last training session, the animal was taken by injection of xylazine and ketamine in combination and intraperitoneal injection and direct blood samples from the heart. ELISA method and Zalbio kit were used to measure the concentration of MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue. 0.05 was used to analyze the data.
The results of one-way analysis of variance test in the present study showed that there was a significant difference between the effect of six weeks of endurance, resistance and combined exercise on protein monoacetate monocyte protein-1 (MCP-1) in visceral adipose tissue of diabetic male mice ( P = 0.001 and F = 118/289). Also, the results of Tukey post hoc test showed that there was a significant difference between diabetic control group and all groups, between endurance training group with exercise control and healthy control group, resistance training with exercise control and healthy control, combined training with exercise control and healthy control. There is but there is no significant difference between other groups (Figure 1).
In the present study, it was found that there is a significant difference between the effect of six weeks of endurance, resistance and combination exercise on protein monoacetate monocyte protein-1 (MCP-1) in the visceral adipose tissue of male diabetic mice. On the other hand, it was found that there was a significant difference between the effect of all three training programs with the control group, which showed that every three days of training on the protein content of NLRP-3 (Inflamasoma) in the visceral adipose tissue of diabetic male mice. It was also found that there is no significant difference between the three training methods, however, the results showed that endurance training is more effective than Turkish and resistance training. Consistent with the findings of the present study, Kazemi (2016) showed that MCP-1 levels of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma insulin decreased following intense intermittent exercise (7). Moderate-intensity exercise has been reported to reduce peripheral inflammatory markers, including MCP-1 (16). Based on our knowledge, the present study has for the first time investigated the effect of three methods of endurance training, resistance training and combination on MCP-1 in diabetic rats. Also, one of the possible mechanisms of MCP-1 reduction in the present study may be related to the role of IL-8 and osulin resistance in diabetics. However, more research is needed to determine the exact mechanism by which physical activity affects MCP-1. On the other hand, systemic administration of MCP-1 in mice has been shown to induce insulin resistance. Research has also shown that MCP-1 is mainly produced by macrophages, endothelial cells and adipocytes and acts as an adsorbent of macrophages in adipose tissue in obesity-dependent insulin resistance and atherogenesis (9). Therefore, there seems to be a direct relationship between MCP-1 levels and insulin resistance, and considering the decrease in insulin resistance in the present study, the reduction of MCP-1 also seems reasonable.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
In the present study, all ethical principles of working with laboratory animals were observed.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for profit sectors.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise Physiology

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